Sunday, March 8, 2020

Margaretha Scholl 1794-1856

Margaretha Scholl was born 11 September 1794 to Wendel Scholl and Maria Katharina Nüchter. She was fourth of their five children. Margaretha was christened on the 12th of September in Graben. Margaretha married Philipp Krauss 13 Apr 1819 in Graben. Their first child Christine was illegitimate but thereafter they married which made Christine legitimate in the eyes of the church. Their son Philipp's birth record says: Philipp Krauß, currently still a private in the Grand Ducal Line Infantry Regiment [of the] Grand Duke.
Margaretha's husband Philipp Krauß was a Bürger or citizen in Graben as well as a Schneider or tailor and he was a soldier in the Duke's Grand infantry regiment. Philipp was born 29 January 1794 and died 14 March 1865 at 70 years old.  In 1856 Philipp Krauß was a citizen and local police servant/beadle in his wife's death record.  In his death record Philipp is identified as an Ortsdiener or night watchman. Philipp's father is George Krauss, and was a citizen and farmer in Graben.
Kent Note: To me this document is completely unreadable other than the names. I did try to darken the text in Photoshop. I don't have the name of the pastor who wrote this but now I feel spoiled after reading the beautiful Graben records. 

What is a "police servant".
Ulrich Neitzel to Kent: To illustrate the function of a police servant (Polizeidiener) I found the following description from Reilingen, a village about 18 km north of Graben:

For more than a century there were police servants in our municipality. The documents in the municipal archives show that we already had one around 1840. Police servants were employees of the municipality - in contrast to the gendarmes, who were officials of the Grand Duchy of Baden and were based in Schwetzingen with a branch office in Hockenheim. The duties of the police servants were manifold. They had to run errands for the administration or announce news for the inhabitants with the bell. The ordinances further stated: "The police servant is responsible for maintaining public peace, security and order." They were to "prevent criminal acts by instructing them and to intervene vigorously against lawbreakers."

This also included monitoring the closing time ("police hour") in the inns. In addition, they had to make sure that the local police regulations were observed. There were many of these, e.g. that the local streets were "properly cleaned" by the residents - at least every Saturday and before every holiday; that fruit wagons were not loaded too wide and that no two or three were hitched together.

What happened to their children?
1. Christine Krauss 24 Jan 1817- 2 Dec 1819
2. Philipp Krauss 20 Apr 1819- 5 July 1823
4. Georg Friedrich Krauss 23 Apr 1824 Dec  America
5. Christina Krauss 17 Oct 1826 - 13 Jan 1886 in Liedolsheim, Baden, Germany
6. Philipp Krauss 5 Jun 1829 Dec America 1856
7. Wilhelm Krauss 16 June 1832-1834
9. Frederick Krauss 22 Nov 1837 Dec

Robert Seal Comment: Here are two links from the German Wikipedia which will better explain what a line infantry is and what a line regiment is:

Line infantry:

Line regiment:

Line Infantry from German Wikipedia:
The term "line infantry" describes a supplement to line tactics . The line infantry included the musketeers and grenadiers , initially also the fusiliers - with the change in combat tactics, these were later classified as light infantry . The light infantry emerged in the 18th century when the line-up for battle began front of the massed in three lines infantry of to place light, mobile troops in the main meeting (infantry de ligne), which were . These were supposed to disturb the opposing front with targeted, irregular fire. Their cohesion was to be broken in particular by targeted fire at officers and the piece teams of the infantry guns. The light infantry was therefore also known as skirmishers or voltigeurs .

After the guards had changed in the Napoleonic Wars from special troops more or less entrusted with the protection of the sovereign to large regular combat units, it was obvious to introduce a different name.

The by Napoleon I founded on May 18, 1804, had Imperial Guard, expanded more and more and, with the Old Guard , the Middle Guard and the Young Guard, had almost two by 1815 divisions . Therefore, the terms "Infantry of the Line" and "Infantry of the Guard" prevailed. So the broad mass of the foot troops of the standing army was separated from the guard infantry on the one hand and the irregular light infantry formations on the other. This gave the term "line infantry" a completely different meaning.

Line Regiments from German Wikipedia:
The regiments of the line set up in the early 20th century, the broad mass of the regiments of the standing army . It was all the regiments that - if the army had a guard - did not belong to the guard.

The line regiments differed from guard regiments , Landwehr (military) , Landsturm and irregular light troops. When the light infantry , which was previously organized in smaller units such as the free battalions , became part of the line troops and land forces, guards and the national like became part of the warfare, the term line regiment was used to delimit these regiments from the constantly active regular units.

Line regiments were in the infantry ( line infantry ), cavalry and artillery . They usually also made up the largest proportion of the troop strength. Today we speak of in this context field armies and territorial . In the case of cavalry, the term was also used until the end of the 18th century to differentiate it from other mounted units such as hussars , lancers and dragoons , which until then did not formally belong to the cavalry.

During their lives:
1822        Feb 22, Adolf Kuszmaul, German physician (stomach pump, Kuszmaul disease), was born in Graben
1824        May 7, The Ninth Symphony by Beethoven had its premiere. The "Ode to Joy" lyric was originally written by Friedrich von Schiller as the "Ode to Freedom."
1813        Aug 26-27, The Battle of Dresden was Napoleon’s last major victory against the allied forces of Austria, Russia and Prussia.
1827        Mar 26, Ludwig von Beethoven (56), German composer, died in Vienna. He had been deaf for the later part of his life, but said on his death bead "I shall hear in heaven." It was later determined that he suffered from lead poisoning.
1828        Nov 19, Franz Schubert (b.1797), Austrian composer, died of syphilis in Vienna. In this he composed his song cycle "Schwanengesang." His work included the C-Major Symphony, string quartets, 3 piano sonatas, and the C-Major String Quarte

1832        Jul 5, The German government began curtailing freedom of the press after German Democrats advocated a revolt against Austrian rule.
1842        May 5, City-wide fire burned for over 100 hours in Hamburg, Germany. The medieval center of Hamburg was virtually leveled.
1845        Oct 19, Richard Wagner's opera "Tannhauser," premiered in Dresden
1846        Feb 9, Wilhelm Maybach, German engineer, was born. He designed the first Mercedes automobile.
1847 Nov 4, Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (b.1809), German pianist and composer, died at age 38. His work included: "Overture to a Midsummer Night's Dream."

Documents related to Margaretha Scholl:
Philipp Krauss born 29 Jan 1794 film 004137289 page 753
Translation by Robert Seal:
On the 29th of January [1794] at night at 9:00 pm born and on the 31st of the same month baptized: Philipp [Krauss].
Father: Georg Krauss, the local citizen.
Mother: Margaretha Barbara, née Braunin.
Baptismal witnesses: (1) Adam Müller, the local citizen and master cartwright. (2) His wife Magdalena, née Lindin. (3) Christoph Lind, the local citizen, master mason, and widower. (4) Maria Catharina, née Hüttnerin, wife of young Christoph Kemm, the local citizen.
Right column: soldier | died 14 March 1865.

Margaretha Scholl b 12 Sep 1794 Graben film 102078348 page 673
Translation by Robert Seal:
On the 11th of September [1794] midday at 12:00 noon was born and on the 12th of the same month was baptized: Margaretha.
Father: Wendel Scholl, the local citizen.
Mother: Maria Catharina, née Nüchterin.
Baptismal witnesses: (1) Georg Michael Klein, the local non-citizen resident, and (2) his wife Salome, née Nüchterin.
In right column: died 5 February 1856.
Margaretha Scholl born on the 11th at 12:00 noon, 12 Sep 1794 baptism,
Parents: Wendel Scholl and Maria Katharina Nüchter, death 6 Feb 1856
Names of witnesses: Georg Michel Klein was a Hintersass (a dependent farmer who is not the Lord's serf) and his wife Salome born Nuchterin.
Margaretha Scholl marriage to Phlipp Krauss 1819 film 102078348 page 1078 
Translation by Marion Wolfert
On the 13 April 1819 were married and received legitimate blessings:
The future local citizen Philipp KRAUß, presently a Soldier in the Grand Duchy infantry regiment, legitimate son of the deceased local citizen Georg KRAUß and wife Margaretha Barbara nee BRAUN(in), 25 ¼ years old and
Margaretha SCHOLL(in), legitimate daughter of the deceased local citizen Wendel SCHOLL and his wife Maria Katharina nee NUCHTER(in), 24 ½ years old.
Witnesses are Christoph KANNE? (could be KAMM?) And Wilhelm SCHOLL, both local citizens.
Margaretha Scholl sponsor 14 Apr 1822 film 102078348 page 961 top left
Translation by Robert Seal:
No. 18. On the 14th of April [1822] in the morning at 9:00 am born and on the 16th of the same month baptized: Christine [Scholl]. Parents are the local citizen Wilhem Scholl, and his wife Margaretha, née Weeber. 
Baptismal witnesses are: (1) Johann Martin Becker, local citizen and master weaver. (2) His wife Magdalena, née Seeber. (3) Philipp Krauß, local citizen. (4) His wife Margaretha, née Scholl.
Graben, on the 16th of April 1822. T. G. Beck, pastor.
Margaretha Scholl Krauss Familienbuch (Family Book) film 102118620 page 965
For reference in deciphering the familybuch above:
1. Christine Krauss 24 Jan 1817- 2 Dec 1819
2. Philipp Krauss 20 Apr 1819- 5 July 1823
4. Georg Friedrich Krauss 23 Apr 1824 Dec  America
5. Christina Krauss 17 Oct 1826 - 13 Jan 1886 in Liedolsheim, Baden, Germany
6. Philipp Krauss 5 Jun 1829 Dec America 1856
7. Wilhelm Krauss 16 June 1832-1834
9. Friedericke Krauss 22 Nov 1837 Dec see book II page 3 or 310

Translation help by Robert Seal
The two notes after the list of the nine children refer to the illegitimate children of daughters 8 and 9 above:
First note (daughter 8): NB. Eva Katharina had illegitimately: Wilhelmine, born 13 Jan 1852, died 26 Jan 1852.
Second note (daughter 9): Friederike had illegitimately: Friederike, born 6 Aug 1860, 5:00 pm. Recognized/acknowledged v. M_____?, volume II, page 340. [You'll want to find this entry on page 340 in volume 2 to see if this child's paternity is acknowledged by the father.]
Note: I am unable to decipher the word in the baptismal column for child no. 5. 
The following contains errors: See the translations and familybuch above.
Familybook II page 340 Friederike film 102118620 page 1248
Philipp M Werner death 24 Aug 1903 in Forest Park, Cook County Ill Find a Grave

Margaretha Scholl  death 5 February 1856 film 102550540 page 471,

Translation by Robert Seal:
No. 4. In the year of Christ 1856, on the 5th of February in the evening at 4:00 pm died here, and on the 7th of the same month in the evening around 4:00 pm by the undersigned pastor here was buried: Margaretha Krauß, wife of Philipp Krauß, citizen and local servant/beadle here, age 61 years, 4 months, and 24 days. Her Deceased parents were: Wendel Scholl, former citizen here, and Maria Katharina, née Nüchter, his wife.
Christoph Braun, citizen and mason here. Jakob Wentz, citizen and shoemaker here.
Pastor G. Crecelius presided.
Graben, on the 7th of February 1856. G. Crecelius, pastor.
In right margin: 5 February. Margaretha Krauß, née Scholl. Wife
Robert Seal: A beadle is a minor civil or parish official with various responsibilites. The first pargaraph in the following link provides a good overview of what the "Ortsdiener" repsonsibilites were: Use the translate function to translate to English. Here is another definition from the Cambridge dictionary: Here I would think the second definition would be applicable.
Philipp Krauß death at 70 14 Mar 1865 film 102550540 page 791
Translation by Robert Seal
Be aware that there are two inserts written in the left margin that need to be inserted into the main record. I will insert these in the appropriate place and will mark the inserts in bold:
Number 10.
In the year 1865, on the 14th of March in the evening at 4:30 pm died here and was buried on the 16th of March [1865] in the afternoon at 3? o'clock by the undersigned: Philipp Krauß, citizen, tailor, and "____diener" here, 71 years, 1 month, and 15 days old, widower of Margaretha Scholl. His parents were Georg Krauß, the late citizen and farmer here, and Margaretha Barbara, née Braun. 
Witnesses: Johann Dählinger, tailor, and Christoph Friedrich Süß, both citizens and "____diener" here.
Graben, on the 16th of March 1865. Zimmern, pastor.
Left margin: What was originally written in the left margin before the inserts were written is:
10 | 14 March | Krauss | Philipp | W [= Wittwer = widower] | 70 years.
Note: Because the pastor added the inserts at a later date, he signed in the left margin certifying these inserts: additionally certified: Zimmern, pastor.

My comment: The one word which I believe ends in "diener" is the same in both places and hopefully another community member will be able to decipher and translate. [see below]
Note: You're welcome, Kent. FYI: of all the Graben pastors I've translated for you, Pastor Zimmern's handwriting is by far the worst.
Ulrich Neitzel: I read the missing occupation as Ortsdiener.
See this link for a description (in German) of the function of an Ortsdiener (and a Nachtwächter) and a few photos: . Please use your browser's translate function or DeepL for translation to English.
Essay: Municipal offices in the past: the night watchman and the town clerk
by Christiane Schmidt

So that everyone can sleep peacefully, one person stays awake and watches out - he night watchman. Are they today? mostly companies that afford night watchmen, the night watch used to be from the municipal treasury paid service to the community.

We find out for the first time in a year that a night watchman is employed in a Hüttenberg community 1833 from Reiskirchen: The day and night watchman Rühl signs with three crosses that he received his annual salary of one thaler and 20 silver groschen. (The teacher, on the other hand, receives an
Cash only 16 silver groschen for the whole year.) 

From 1836 the night watchmen of Groß- known to Rechtenbach:
From 10 p.m. the night watchman had to make his rounds through the village, usually in the Summer until 3 a.m. and winter until 4 a.m. He had to blow his horn every hour on the hour. This signal served less to announce the time to the sleeping citizens (which they also
the church clock struck), rather than proving that he was at his post. Some clues in the files of the municipality show that proof was necessary: ​​The Hochelheimer In 1876, the municipal council had to deal with the fact that the night watchman got into his card game. In the Economy was so deep that he forgot to blow the 10 o'clock signal. Must due to absenteeism the night watchman from Volpertshausen was fined 50 pfennigs in 1889, in Reiskirchen even imposed a fine of one mark! The temptation was too great for the night watchman, prefer to spend a cold winter night at home in bed than for 6 hours to walk around the village. Bad luck, if the policeman employed by the mayor's office also was out that night and couldn't find the night watchman at his post. So reports the policeman Zoerb from Groß-Rechtenbach in 1878:

On the night of the 23rd to the 24th of this month, the two night watchmen are on night watch not done as prescribed. The guards only started at 11 a.m. and at 1 a.m already closed. At half past four I met Krombach in bed, Scheiter had also gone home embark …. I have to add that Krombach and Scheiter didn't blow a 2 or a 3. Around ½ 4, when I didn't find the two on the street and not in the police station, I went to Krombach's apartment, knocked at the window, where Krombach's wife first answered me. Krombach jumped out of bed, which I heard exactly, and came to the window in a bare shirt, which I saw. And when I identified me and asked for the xxxx, he took a step back, probably that I shouldn't see that he was standing there in his bare shirt because there were no lights on and that was all I could do see him standing near the window. I told him to blow in half an hour, which he did that. In Hochelheim one night in 1874, the policeman did not meet the night watchman, but his 16-year-old son standing in for his sick father. Unfortunately, he shows little understanding for the situation and reports it.

The night watchmen are not paid much money, which is shown by the numerous requests for wage increases. In 1905 the night watchman Karl Müller von Groß-Rechtenbach wrote: My salary as a night watchman is 100 marks a year, that's 28 pfennigs a night. This wage is too low. For this I have to wake up 3 hours every night, burn my wood and besides, I do what is proper when I want to do my job and when I do report impartially, much hostility in the village. Young people often behave themselves unseemly. …. As early as 1877, the Hochelheim night watchman complained that the young. People were rampaging at night and he couldn't deal with them. Nobody wants to help him.

In order to have a reasonably sufficient income, the night watchmen often have to work at the same time take on more offices. So in Groß-Rechtenbach around 1877 there was a swineherd and a cowherd
also night watchman at the same time. The office was only abolished completely after the Second World War. In Hochelheim, for example, the position was rescinded on April 1, 1957, and the two night watchmen quit.

Another office that could be easily combined with the position as a night watchman was that of Ortsdieners.

Official notices were still given to citizens well into the 1960s announced orally. I can still remember well how in my childhood a man with ran through the village with a bell in his hand. At various points he stopped and jingled couple of times with it. This could not be ignored and people came out of the houses and asked get close to him. Then he unfolded a piece of paper and read something important. Then he went on to the next position. In the elongated street villages he had a few to reach stations. Because he didn't go as far as the ends of the village with the announcements and also
had let foreign beggars into the village, became the local servant in Hochelheim in 1878 because
dismissed for neglect of duty.