Maria Margaretha Scholl was the sixth child of Johann Georg Scholl and Anna Marie Kammerer. She was born 6 May 1763 and died 27th of May 1753. In all she lived 3 weeks or 21 days. The Pastor at Maria Margaretha’s birth and death was F. C. H. Beck. By this time you might think Johann George and Maria Margaretha would be depressed about the death of yet another of their children. By the year 1753 four out of their six children had died in infancy. We might think this was terrible however people at the time had a different view of and death than you might think:
Death seen as natural
If a woman died after the birth of a child (this was a dangerous process because of infections), her younger sister stepped in as new wife, or replacement. The husband (here farmer in the country) absolutely needed a wife to look after the children and farm house (cooking etc.). So he normally got remarried a second, or third time within a few months; later a one year period was recommended. Often these wives were widows themselves. So there was constant giving births and dying on the farms, similar to what happened in the stable with the animals. Death was seen as natural. Only medicine and hygienic measures lowered the infant and childhood mortality rate. However, there were very bad pestulenza waves in the 17th century in our regions. Many villages lost 30 to 40% of the population. (Peter Bertschinger)
Average life expectancy at birth for English people in the late 16th and early 17th centuries was just under 40 – 39.7 years. However, this low figure was mostly due to the high rate of infant and child mortality; over 12% of all children born would die in their first year. With the hazards of infancy behind them, the death rate for children slowed but continued to occur. A cumulative total of 36% of children died before the age of six, and another 24% between the ages of seven and sixteen. In all, of 100 live births, 60 would die before the age of 16. A man or woman who reached the age of 30 could expect to live to 59. [Thomson Gale, 'Infant Mortality' (1998)]
Food shortages and insecurity were leading concerns in the 18th century, especially in Europe, and these were exacerbated by reduced harvests yields. Disease was another leading cause of death, with rats and fleas being the common carriers of disease, specifically plagues, during this era. Common diseases were dysentery, malaria, diphtheria, flu, typhoid, smallpox and leprosy. (Wikipedia)
Documents related to Maria Margaretha Scholl:
|Maria Margaretha birth 6 May 1753 film 4137289 page 480|
Translation by Robert Seal:On the 6th of May 1753, a little daughter of Georg Scholl, citizen and farmer, from Anna Maria, née Cammerer, was born to the world, so thereafter was baptized and was named Maria Margaretha. Baptismal sponsors are Georg Philipp Zwecker, citizen and cartwright, and Christian Bickel, citizen and blacksmith, with their wives.
Translation by Robert Seal:On the 27th of May 1753, the conceived little daughter of Georg Scholl, citizen and farmer, and his wife Anna Maria, named Maria Magdalena, died from cramps, and thereafter the following day with the ringing of the large bells and a chancel reading [of scripture] ____ ____ was buried, at the age of 3 weeks.
Notes:Anna Maria (erzeugtes) begotten daughter Maria Margaretha, she died of cramps (gichtern) 3 weeks old buried on the following day.