According to Han's birth document Jorg Scholl was born to Hans Andreas Scholl and Margaretha Hosin 11 February 1678 in Graben, Baden, Germany. The christening took place on the 12th of February, as was the custom in the Lutheran Church. Georg is Anna and Hans Andreas' 7th child. For some unknown reason he has a cross on his birth certificate which usually meant deceased in infancy. However his death record tells us he lived 50 years 9 mo 1 day. which puts his birth at 1678. Jorg aka Georg (Georg on his death certificate) married Maria Elisabetha Weidmann about 1709. Maria was born 2 Dec 1685 in Graben. Georg died 12 Nov 1728. He lived 50 years 9 months 1 day which was consistent with the age he lived in. The Pastor Andreas Weber who filled out his death record entered his years, months and days perfectly. His death certificate spells his first name as Johann Georg, and says he was a Bürger (citizen of Graben). In Christoph Scholl's birth record the Pastor says Georg was a builder or farmer, the German word is Baursmann .
In Christoph Scholl's birth record the Pastor says Georg was a builder or farmer, the German word is Baursmann .
The meaning of "Meier" has changed over time. In the beginning (middle ages) a Meier was indeed the manager of the land of the landowner, the noble or ecclesiastical lord of the manor. Later, in the 17th century after the 30-years war, this developed into a legal system of land lease. The land was still owned by the (mostly noble) landowner, but leased to the farmer for cultivation. There was a whole legal system governing the rights and duties of the "Meiers", including inheritance. I don't know enough about the American conditions to judge how this compares to a sharecropper or tenant. I understand that the term Meier has been in use in later times mainly in the north-west of Germany (Lower Saxony and Westphalia). "Pächter" is a similar term, probably used in other parts of the country. There are many more terms used for the occupation of farmer in the past. Acker(s)mann, Bauer, Baumann are more generic terms. Vollbauer (full farmer) or Halbbauer (half farmer) describe the size of the farm. Kät(h)ner, Köt(h)ner, Kossäth, Büdner, Häußler or Gärtner are, as you say, cottagers with little or no land.
|Hans Jorg Scholl born 12 Feb 1678 film 102078348 page 163|
On the 12th of February , in the evening at 4:00 pm, a young little son of Hanß Endres Scholl, citizen here, from his wife Anna Margreth, was born here, who thereafter on the 14th of the same month was baptized and was named Hanß Jörg.
Baptismal sponsors were:
(1) Hanß Jörg Eÿtel, citizen and innkeeper at the sign of the swan here, and Anna Catharina, his wife.
(2) Hanß Andres Zimmermann, citizen here, his wife Anna Margretha.
In left margin: + [died].
Kent Gardiner:The Graben Pastor from 1677-1682 was Immanuel Rösch von Geislingen. He recorded Georg’s birth.
|Georg Scholl death 12 Nov 1728 film 4137289 page 430|
Here is my translation which you can compare with yours:
On the 12th of November  Johann Geoge Scholl, the local citizen, died, whereupon he was buried with chiming [of bells], singing, and a funeral sermon. Age: 50 years and 9 months less 1 day.
Note: Unfortunately other than stating he is a local citizen, no other profession is recorded for Johann Georg Scholl. Do note, however, that he was a fairly important person in the community because of the chiming of the bells, the singing, and the funeral sermon.
It is certainly true that there were different levels of funeral ceremonies. Only on this page of the church book there are named "Läutung der kleinen Glocke" (ringing of the little bell), "Läutung aller Glocken" (ringing of all bells), "Glockenklang" (sound of bells). The little bell is often also called the "Totenglocke" (death bell).
The scope of ceremonies had certainly to do with the rank of the person, which in turn determined how much was paid (or better donated) to the church for the funeral service. I don't think there was a "manual" for this purpose, but people did know it and made their arrangement with the pastor.Comments: The date is for the death; there is no date for the burial.
Robert Seal: The word for "less" in German is: weniger. Some of this word (at the beginning of the last line of the record) is lost in the gutter of the book.
Kent Gardiner: The Graben Pastor from 1719-1738 was Andreas Weber, Alsatua (an Alsatian) He made funeral arrangements, helped bury Georg and hand wrote this death record.
|Peter Mercklen and Elisabetha marriage 28 June 1712 film 102078348 page 288|
Translation by Robert Seal:
28 Jun were married Peter Merkhlin the weaver and with him Anna Elisabetha née Cammererin.
April 17: Anna Margaretha Cammerer is marrying a man named Peter Rausch.
6 December: Matthias Scholl is marrying a woman named Anna Eva Rossin [Ross].
Comment: This scribe makes an unusual capital "R".
Note: Elisabetha's FH ID: 9KN9-PYN
|Peter Merckle death at 46 on 26 Aug 1733 film 102078298 page 438|
273. On the 26th of August , Peter Merckle died, citizen and linen weaver, who with sound, singing, and a funeral sermon was buried. Age: 46 years.
|Christoph Schuhmacher birth 22 Oct 1675 Graben film 102078348 page 161|
Translation Marion Wolfert:
On the 22nd October 1675 was born into this world during the night at 12 o’clock and was baptized in Durlach on the 23rd October 1675, Johann Christoph Schumacher.
His parents: Christoph Schumacher and his wife Margretha.
Baptismal sponsors: 1. Hans Jacob Süss a “Schultheiss” (mayor or policeman) 2. Reinhard Hünelein and his wife.
Remark: died at Durlach
Question: Why Durlach? Durlach is 17 miles south of Graben. It is a suburb of Karlsruhe. That is 21 minutes by car.
Answer: No, except they might have lived there for a while working and they reported the birth back to the home parish. That happened in Switzerland all the time.
Note: Jacob Süss began serving as a mayor or sheriff for Graben in 1671 and served until 1691.
|Christoph Schuhmacher marriage 13 Sep 1704 film 102078348 page 187|
On the 13th September 1704 were married:
Christoph Schuhmacher, a butcher, and Maria Barbara Horckheimer, legitimate daughter of the deceased saddle maker Horckheimer in M...acker. (I can't find it in Meyersgaz, however, I am sure it is a little place nearby, probably in the same parish.
Remark: They have both slept together and were married after repentance.
Kent to Marion: Can you give me the German for the above sentence?
Ulrich Neitzel ans: The German text is: "haben beyde früher Beyschlaf begangen u. seynd deswegen nach Verdienst copuliert worden."
Translation of the German text above using DeepL Translate: have both committed early insomnia and have therefore been copulated on merit. (DeepL translate has a way to go)
Google translate: have committed beys sleep in the past and were therefore coded according to merit.
Ulrich Neitzel notes:
I think the home place of saddle maker Horckheimer can be Mühlacker, at that time a small village about 30 miles SE of Graben on the border between Baden and Württemberg: https://www.meyersgaz.org/place/20221004.
Over time it has grown into a town of 26000 inhabitants, thanks to its position as a railroad junction, see the German (https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%BChlacker) or English (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%BChlacker) Wikipedia.
|Christoph Schumacher 2 Aug bap 1710 film 102078348 page 221|
Translation by Robert Seal:
On the 1st of August , Johann Christoph was born and on the 2nd [of August 1710] was baptized.
Parents: Johann Christoph Schuemacher, Barbara.
Baptismal sponsors: Georg Scholl with his wife. Matthias Scholl. Anna Christina Kellerin, the mayor's daughter, unmarried status.
Note: Hans Matthaeus Scholl is the brother of Georg Scholl b 1678
|Georg Scholl 11 Aug 1716 witness left film 102078348 page 231|
Date: born on the 10th [of August 1716] and baptized on the 11th of August .
Child: Georg Matthias. + [died].
Parents: Petrus Mercklen, "Erg_:"? non-citizen resident and linen weaver, [and] Elisabetha.
Witnesses: Matthias Pfeil, citizen and member of the court, with his wife Jacobina. Georg Scholl, citizen and farmer, with his wife Elisabetha.
|Elisabetha Schumacher m Martin Metzger 27 Juine 1724 film 102078298 page 387|
34. Tuesday, on the 27th of June , were with each other legitimately ______? and married Hanß Martin Metzger, legitimate unmarried son of Jacob Metzger, citizen and council member here, and with him Elisabetha, unmarried daughter of Christoph Schuhmacher, likewise a local citizen and butcher. They had a wedding sermon, marriage celebration, and string music.
Comment: That one word in the first line appears to be "Vertrau_t" and may translate as trust or confidence.
Note in record no. 33 immediately above that the groom, Wilhelm Metzger, is the brother of Hanß Martin Metzger; thus the Metzger family celebrated a double wedding on 27 June 1724.
|Christoph Schuhmacher death 17 May 1750 film 102078348 page 505|
6 May 1750 died Christoph Schumacher, a citizen, and widower, and a former Mesger? (butcher?) or Mehger? it is shortened so I don't know for sure. He will be buried the following day, with bells, songs and a sermon. his age was 75 years, 6 months, 14 days.
Kent: What? No bells?
Marion Note: It says "Klang, Gsang und geschehener Leichenpredigt" So, you are right "Klang" stands for Bell ringing, I omitted to write that. Sorry, I should have included that.