Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Johann Georg Scholl 1678 - 1728

According to Han's birth document Jorg Scholl was born to Hans Andreas Scholl and Margaretha Hosin 11 February 1678 in Graben, Baden, Germany. The christening took place on the 12th of February, as was the custom in the Lutheran Church. Georg is Anna and Hans Andreas' 7th child. For some unknown reason he has a cross on his birth certificate which usually meant deceased in infancy. However his death record tells us he lived 50 years 9 mo 1 day. which puts his birth at 1678. Jorg aka Georg (Georg on his death certificate) married Maria Elisabetha Weidmann about 1709. Maria was born 2 Dec 1685 in Graben. Georg died 12 Nov 1728. He lived 50 years 9 months 1 day which was consistent with the age he lived in. The Pastor Andreas Weber who filled out his death record entered his years, months and days perfectly. His death certificate spells his first name as Johann Georg, and says he was a Bürger (citizen of Graben). In Christoph Scholl's birth record the Pastor says Georg was a builder or farmer, the German word is Baursmann .

Farmer by Ulrich Neitzel:
The meaning of "Meier" has changed over time. In the beginning (middle ages) a Meier was indeed the manager of the land of the landowner, the noble or ecclesiastical lord of the manor. Later, in the 17th century after the 30-years war, this developed into a legal system of land lease. The land was still owned by the (mostly noble) landowner, but leased to the farmer for cultivation. There was a whole legal system governing the rights and duties of the "Meiers", including inheritance. I don't know enough about the American conditions to judge how this compares to a sharecropper or tenant. I understand that the term Meier has been in use in later times mainly in the north-west of Germany (Lower Saxony and Westphalia). "Pächter" is a similar term, probably used in other parts of the country. There are many more terms used for the occupation of farmer in the past. Acker(s)mann, Bauer, Baumann are more generic terms. Vollbauer (full farmer) or Halbbauer (half farmer) describe the size of the farm. Kät(h)ner, Köt(h)ner, Kossäth, Büdner, Häußler or Gärtner are, as you say, cottagers with little or no land.

What happened to their children?
Christoph Scholl 1716-1761 married Maria Barbara Süss 5 Jan 1740 in Graben, her father is Johann Martin Süss
Johann Georg Scholl 1720-1764 married Anna Maria Kammerer and had 12 children
Who were the baptismal sponsors for Georg's children?
Johann Peter Scholl Baptismal sponsors: Peter [blank],unmarried status (Peter married 28 June 1712 to Elisabetha Cammererin) . Margaretha "Cammerin", unmarried status. Comment: I believe the second sponsor's surname should be: Cammererin.
Anna Elisabeth Scholl  Baptismal sponsors: Johann Christoff Schuhemacher, the butcher, and his wife. Peter Merkle, the weaver, and his wife. Cum notis means with remarks
Christoph Scholl Baptismal sponsors: Christoph Schuhmacher, butcher, with wife Anna Maria Barbara; Peter Mercklen, weaver, a ____? non-citizen resident, with wife Elisabetha. Cum uxor means with his wife which is Latin
Johann Georg Scholl Baptismal sponsors: Christoph Schuhmacher, the butcher, and Elisabetha, his wife. Peter Merkle, the weaver here, and his wife. (See end of post for more on Peter's FH ID: 9KN9-PT1)
Andreas Scholl Baptismal sponsors: Christoph Schumacher the butcher, with (Anna Maria) Barbara, Nicholas Fisher a Schaefer connect or shepherd, Elizabeth Rausch legitimate daughter of Jacob Rausch (Christoph Schumacher's FS ID is K4P9-FNQ) (see end of post for more on Christoph Schumacher)
Christoph Schumacher, the butcher, was the sponsor of 4/5 of George Scholl's children. Christoph was born 22 October 1675 in Graben to Christoph Schumacher (1642-1691) and Margaretha Straub (1650-1710). Both of Christoph's parents were baptismal sponsors to two of Georg Scholl's siblings. Christoph married Anna Maria Barbara Horchheimer on the 13 Sep 1704. in Graben. Maria Barbara Horckheimer is the legitimate daughter of the deceased saddle maker from Mühlacker.  At that time Mühlacker was a small village about 30 miles SE of Graben. The Schumachers are the parents of 6/7 children. FS has the births in Spöck due to a major indexing error however they were all born in Graben. George Scholl 1678 must have been good friends with the Schumachers because they were willing to raise his children if something un-forseen happened to himself or his wife. George died in 1728 and Christoph died 22 years later on the 6th of May 1750. and was buried the following day, with bells, songs and a sermon. His age was 75 years, 6 months, 14 days. That is a nice long life for the time. Christoph must have been in good physical shape dealing with all that meat. 
Who is Peter Mercklen?
Peter Mercklen was born in Graben in 1687 and died 26 August 1733. On the 28 June Peter Mercklin, the linen weaver, married Anna Elisabetha née Cammererin. They had about 6 children and he died at 46 in Graben. Peter's son Simon Mercklen was the baptismal sponsor for two of Johann Georg Scholl, b 1720's, children. (see marriage and death records below)
Where did the given names of Georg's children come from?
Johann Peter Scholl from his maternal grandfather
Anna Elisabeth Scholl from her maternal grandmother
Christoph Scholl from his paternal uncle
Johann Georg Scholl from his father
Andreas Scholl from his paternal grandfather

During their lifetime:
In the War of the Grand Alliance (1688-1697), the French destroyed Graben, so that only the church, city hall and some buildings remained. The inhabitants of the village were forced into the forests and in the surrounding area. Peace, order and prosperity did not return until the middle of the 18th century. (Wikipedia)
Farming in Germany:
Most Germans lived in rural areas between the 17th and 19th century. In the 18th century, statistics show that this was true for about 80% of the population. Most farmers were not owners of the land. The land belonged to wealthy land owners, and the cultivator of the land was a mere servant and in many instances, a serf. If a farmer was treated as a serf, he had no personal freedom, i.e., he was not able to marry without consent of his sovereign lord, he could not move anywhere else and could not sell or obtain land. Therefore, few people were able to sell out. If they did, they were free of obligations towards the authorities and could buy, sell, lease, inherit, etc., without interference. Still, their business was recorded.

Was Graben a simple Village?
Already in 1715 an important course for the future of the country had been set: After the Peace of Rastatt, Margrave Karl Wilhelm, Karl Friedrich's Great father, had a hunting lodge built in the Hardtwald - the basis for the late residence Karlsruhe. Soon afterwards the office of Graben was abolished and assigned to the new office of Karlsruhe. Graben lost its official seat and became a simple village. It was not until 1746 that the magnificent land rights of the Electorate Palatinate were replaced by the former Graben and Stein offices, which had had to be seceded in 1424, with 150,000 gulden. (Graben by Konrad Dussel)

Why did the Scholl's live so long in Graben?
In the 19th century it was rare for people to move from their home village. German expert genealogist, Larry Jensen, did a year long study in Germany and found only 7 percent changed locations from 1500 to 1900. Why? Transportation was difficult because horses were expensive as stated. Most people traveled on foot and many stayed in their village most of their lives. Also once a person was born in a community the church was held responsible for the individual. If they moved away and got into debt their village took them back and worked out the problem. Even today in Switzerland and Germany a person's birth location is very important and citizens feel an allegiance to their village of origin. (Larry Jensen, 2019, genealogist)

Sheriff's in Graben during Han's lifetime:
1671 Jakob Süß (Suss)
1691 Johann Mathis Zaisloff
1700 Christoph Keller
1706 Peter Keller (brother the Ch.)
1728 Hans Michel Kammerer  (Graben by Konrad Dussel)

Pastors during their lifetime:
1677-1682 Immanuel Rösch von Geislingen  (The Pastor who filled out Hans Georg's birth record.)
1682-1692 Konrad Stadmann von Durlach 
1692-1698 Philipp Lindemann von Spöck vicariando versehen worden (Translation: Pfarrer Philipp Lindemann came from Spöck to serve in Graben)
1698-1700 Johann Philipp Bauderer (Born 1645 in Leonberg, 1698 in Graben, 1665 Masters , 1671 pastor in Winnenden, 1682 in Freudenstein, 1691 in Backnang, 1698 up to his death in 1700 in Graben )
1700-1703 Johann Christoph Blum
1703-1706 Joh. Alb. Obermüller (born in 1666 in Langenburg † died in1729 Liedolsheim, 1703 in Graben , 1706 in Brötzingen, 1719 up to his death in 1729 pastor in Liedolsheim) 
1706-1714 Ernst Friedrich Weber (or Wider), a franc meaning a Franconian
1714-1719 Daniel Niklas ( born in Nördlingen † died 1719 in Graben, 1695 deacon, 1701 pastor in Aalen)
1719-1738 Andreas Weber, Alsatua (an Alsatian) (The pastor who filled out George's death record)

Documents related to Georg Scholl:

Hans Jorg Scholl born 12 Feb 1678 film 102078348 page 163
Translation by Robert Seal:
On the 12th of February [1678], in the evening at 4:00 pm, a young little son of Hanß Endres Scholl, citizen here, from his wife Anna Margreth, was born here, who thereafter on the 14th of the same month was baptized and was named Hanß Jörg.
Baptismal sponsors were:
(1) Hanß Jörg Eÿtel, citizen and innkeeper at the sign of the swan here, and Anna Catharina, his wife.
(2) Hanß Andres Zimmermann, citizen here, his wife Anna Margretha.
In left margin: + [died].
Kent Gardiner:The Graben Pastor from 1677-1682 was Immanuel Rösch von Geislingen. He recorded Georg’s birth.

The main street of Graben around the middle of the 18th century with the old church, which was demolished in 1873 and in its place the new Kirche was built. Before 1873 the church was faced this way. Today the back of the church is faced away from the main street and the entrance faces the street.

Georg Scholl death 12 Nov 1728 film 4137289 page 430

Robert Seal translation:
Here is my translation which you can compare with yours:
On the 12th of November [1728] Johann Geoge Scholl, the local citizen, died, whereupon he was buried with chiming [of bells], singing, and a funeral sermon. Age: 50 years and 9 months less 1 day.
Note: Unfortunately other than stating he is a local citizen, no other profession is recorded for Johann Georg Scholl. Do note, however, that he was a fairly important person in the community because of the chiming of the bells, the singing, and the funeral sermon.

Ulrich Neitzel
It is certainly true that there were different levels of funeral ceremonies. Only on this page of the church book there are named "Läutung der kleinen Glocke" (ringing of the little bell), "Läutung aller Glocken" (ringing of all bells), "Glockenklang" (sound of bells). The little bell is often also called the "Totenglocke" (death bell).

The scope of ceremonies had certainly to do with the rank of the person, which in turn determined how much was paid (or better donated) to the church for the funeral service. I don't think there was a "manual" for this purpose, but people did know it and made their arrangement with the pastor.Comments: The date is for the death; there is no date for the burial.

Robert Seal: The word for "less" in German is: weniger. Some of this word (at the beginning of the last line of the record) is lost in the gutter of the book.
Kent Gardiner: The Graben Pastor from 1719-1738 was Andreas Weber, Alsatua (an Alsatian) He made funeral arrangements, helped bury Georg and hand wrote this death record.

Peter Mercklen and Elisabetha marriage 28 June 1712 film 102078348 page 288 

Translation by Robert Seal:
28 Jun were married Peter Merkhlin the weaver and with him Anna Elisabetha née Cammererin.
April 17: Anna Margaretha Cammerer is marrying a man named Peter Rausch.
6 December: Matthias Scholl is marrying a woman named Anna Eva Rossin [Ross].
Comment: This scribe makes an unusual capital "R".
Note: Elisabetha's FH ID: 9KN9-PYN

Peter Merckle death at 46 on 26 Aug 1733 film 102078298 page 438
Translation by Robert Seal:
273. On the 26th of August [1733], Peter Merckle died, citizen and linen weaver, who with sound, singing, and a funeral sermon was buried. Age: 46 years.

Christoph Schuhmacher birth 22 Oct 1675 Graben film 102078348 page 161

Translation Marion Wolfert:
On the 22nd October 1675 was born into this world during the night at 12 o’clock and was baptized in Durlach on the 23rd October 1675, Johann Christoph Schumacher.
His parents: Christoph Schumacher and his wife Margretha.
Baptismal sponsors: 1. Hans Jacob Süss a “Schultheiss” (mayor or policeman) 2. Reinhard Hünelein and his wife.
Remark: died at Durlach
Question: Why Durlach? Durlach is 17 miles south of Graben. It is a suburb of Karlsruhe. That is 21 minutes by car.
Answer: No, except they might have lived there for a while working and they reported the birth back to the home parish. That happened in Switzerland all the time.
Note: Jacob Süss began serving as a mayor or sheriff for Graben in 1671 and served until 1691.

Christoph Schuhmacher marriage 13 Sep 1704 film 102078348 page 187
Translation by Marion Wolfert:
On the 13th September 1704 were married:
Christoph Schuhmacher, a butcher, and Maria Barbara Horckheimer, legitimate daughter of the deceased saddle maker Horckheimer in M...acker. (I can't find it in Meyersgaz, however, I am sure it is a little place nearby, probably in the same parish.
Remark: They have both slept together and were married after repentance.
Kent to Marion: Can you give me the German for the above sentence?
Ulrich Neitzel ans: The German text is: "haben beyde früher Beyschlaf begangen u. seynd deswegen nach Verdienst copuliert worden."
Translation of the German text above using DeepL Translate: have both committed early insomnia and have therefore been copulated on merit. (DeepL translate has a way to go)
Google translate: have committed beys sleep in the past and were therefore coded according to merit.
Ulrich Neitzel notes:
I think the home place of saddle maker Horckheimer can be Mühlacker, at that time a small village about 30 miles SE of Graben on the border between Baden and Württemberg:
Over time it has grown into a town of 26000 inhabitants, thanks to its position as a railroad junction, see the German ( or English ( Wikipedia.

The Kirche for Mühlacker is in Dürrmenz where a Protestant church is located. Meyers

 Christoph Schumacher 2 Aug bap 1710 film 102078348 page 221

Translation by Robert Seal:
On the 1st of August [1710], Johann Christoph was born and on the 2nd [of August 1710] was baptized.
Parents: Johann Christoph Schuemacher, Barbara.
Baptismal sponsors: Georg Scholl with his wife. Matthias Scholl. Anna Christina Kellerin, the mayor's daughter, unmarried status.
Note: Hans Matthaeus Scholl is the brother of Georg Scholl b 1678

Georg Scholl 11 Aug 1716 witness left film 102078348 page 231
Translation by Robert Seal:
Date: born on the 10th [of August 1716] and baptized on the 11th of August [1716].
Child: Georg Matthias. + [died].
Parents: Petrus Mercklen, "Erg_:"? non-citizen resident and linen weaver, [and] Elisabetha.
Witnesses: Matthias Pfeil, citizen and member of the court, with his wife Jacobina. Georg Scholl, citizen and farmer, with his wife Elisabetha.

Elisabetha Schumacher m Martin Metzger 27 Juine 1724 film 102078298 page 387 

Translation by Robert Seal:
34. Tuesday, on the 27th of June [1724], were with each other legitimately ______? and married Hanß Martin Metzger, legitimate unmarried son of Jacob Metzger, citizen and council member here, and with him Elisabetha, unmarried daughter of Christoph Schuhmacher, likewise a local citizen and butcher. They had a wedding sermon, marriage celebration, and string music.
Comment: That one word in the first line appears to be "Vertrau_t" and may translate as trust or confidence.
Note in record no. 33 immediately above that the groom, Wilhelm Metzger, is the brother of Hanß Martin Metzger; thus the Metzger family celebrated a double wedding on 27 June 1724.

Christoph Schuhmacher death 17 May 1750 film 102078348 page 505
Translation by Marion Wolfert:
6 May 1750 died Christoph Schumacher, a citizen, and widower, and a former Mesger? (butcher?) or Mehger? it is shortened so I don't know for sure. He will be buried the following day, with bells, songs and a sermon. his age was 75 years, 6 months, 14 days.
Kent: What? No bells?
Marion Note: It says "Klang, Gsang und geschehener Leichenpredigt" So, you are right "Klang" stands for Bell ringing, I omitted to write that. Sorry, I should have included that.