Thursday, March 26, 2020


To begin. "Where the stars of the sky shone upon you, where fine lightnings were shining upon you, where fine lightnings revealed to you fine power, and where fine storm winds with holy winds of sight shook your soul: there is your love, there is your fatherland.

When Moriss Arndt. the "arm wall", where I spent the sunny days of my childhood and roamed through woods and fields in the unbound youthful air, it makes me happy to tell about my birthplace, the trench of past and present. Not high mountains and lovely valleys form a fine environment, and the view over the wide plain is overwhelming for Vusfimt from the "Druchberg" at Hochgeftade, the former bank of the Rhine: after Olten up to the Michaelsberg, which is crowned by a chapel and has a fine history of more than four baptismal years, after Morden to the Königftuhl, at the foot of Heidelberg, which often influenced the Gefchiclxe Graben and had to endure the same misfortune - war distress and destruction by the Franzofen. But when in the nephew on a clear day the 'Serge of the Palatinate lies within reach, when the setting sun gilded its summits and the round top of the Scharfenberg with the *Oerchfriß of the fairest of the three summits of the Trifels, the Ueielwfefte from the Hohenftaufen period, fich clearly stood out in the sky, how the heart of the wandering boy cheered, and with *Hegeifterung he caught the Schenkendorffche song learned in school: "I want to go far away, far from my home. Where the gergespis glow, where the foreign flowers bloom, my soul rests." A benevolent gesture has enabled the young man and man to satisfy the Germanic wanderlust that lives in him. He walked through the German fatherland, greeted his father Rhine with fine castles, admired the splendour of the north and south, crossed the ocean and in the far nephew of America the new home of the Graben emigrants.

l. Ditch (Graben) in the history. 1. the Arzeits gave a time, in which fich in the today's Rhine valley of "Bafel bis Dinge gewal" had accumulated tige weapon monkeys, in the worlds bordered by the mountain tock of the Oogefen and the Hardt, while fie in the open the Vbhänge of the black and (Odenwald flushed. Years may have passed finely, until the mighty Rhine fairy, overflowing with things, separated the Taunus and Hunsrück and the Waffer found a fine way through the Rheinifche slate mountains to the Rordfee. With the increasing depth of the Rhine bed fich increased the emerging land. ?ils the sand dune from Raftatt to Heidelberg, on which today the Hardtwald forest stands, was exposed, the Rhine outflow formed two separate streams. In the middle of the valley, the main Rhine rolled in fine waves towards Morden; frequently, because of the small gradient, the Gltrhein flowed sluggishly along the hilly lyette. Mur when fine tributaries: Murg, Alb, Qfinz, Sal- and Kraichbach led Hochwaffer, the Gftrhein came more in motion and stepped from time to time over fine banks. It formed fich Rinnfale, which led the weapon across the Rhine valley to the main* river, through mud and stones, brought from the buffer from the hilly country and deposited in the Oftrhein, which flattened more and more. The exception became the rule; the arms of the mountain streams fled!) after a fine entry into the Rhine valley, the river was immediately led across it to the main Rhine. Alb, Pfinz, Sal- and Krajchbacl) fich formed their middle course to Hochgeftade and from there to their mouth the Anterlauf. 2. the stone age, On 2000 B.C. Before the Rhine valley was still in force, the alfejten Qnfiedler, certainly 2000 B.C. before the *year 2000 B.C., probably came from sunrise to the lower region. They lived in pits and made their tools from animal antlers, bones, wood and especially stone; therefore that period is called the Stone Age.

2. the spreader, Streickert or Streitgarten. As already known to us, the border between the former margraviate of Baden-Durlach and the diocese of Speyer in the north-east and in the north of the Graben area from Spöcker Feld to Zollbrücke follows mostly the Pfinz, then the Landgraben, which comes from the Pfinz below the mentioned bridge and runs next to the Grabener-Speyrer Schaidrain. Only as far as the field of the Streucker touches the river was the right Pfinzufer margravial area. The Streucker. today Streickert. diefer on the right side of the Pfinz situated part of the Grabener district, has the shape of a triangle and was formerly bordered by three monkeys, two künftlicl) created find soon entered again. Only a few lower lying places at the edge of the forest or at the northern ends of the fields still show the Nberrefte of those long disappeared waffle channels. A document*) from 1453 concerns the ditch through the Grevenhart towards the Adenheim quarry: * We Rheinhard, by the grace of God, Bifchof of Speyer, confess and declare, when we, with the advice of our counsellors and the people with whom we have a ditch, the little Pfinz, through the Grevenhart near the castle, laffen into the quarry and interbass on the mountain for, down to the brook. which flows from Bruchfal through Adenheim. for the sake of that our part of the Pfinz. when one will need it, would also go down to Adenheim at the mills. and when folches as fchecheche, that then good litters in the Bruch would become." Where next to the Kammerforft the Pfinz. stops forming the border. fie now fucks her daughter. the little Pfinz. to the right. to take over the office of the mother, to divide the "lands". There. at the Landwehrfpiße. ftand. in the middle of the Pfinz on oak ouerfch threshold of the LochbauniF) a triangular. oak pole. as he often found in the Middle Ages at Wafferfcheiden fich. In the treaty of Margrave Karl II and the Bishop Rudolf von Speyer of April 29, 1557, it says: ...Half of the hole tree. Since the Pfinz stream is divided on the sides of the margraves and Speyer, it is agreed that the ground sill, which lies at the bottom of the Pfinz stream, on which the hole building stands in the middle of the Pfinz, should lie in the middle of the river, right in the middle of the valley and at no end lower than the other. When one pointed out later from margrave side that half of the Pfinzwaffe celebrates too much for the Speyrer. since the Pfinz only one hour the border *) General-Landesarchiv in Karlsruhe 38/66th ") The last Landwehr belonged to my father. Up to the eighties of the last century [ag the mysterious oak tree, the basic threshold of the lo building, in the finz. A high weapon tore it loose and rolled it along the riverbank. The weapon that hit it made a large hole in the ground in the far reaches of the land forces. With a lot of effort we succeeded. The last reed of the old hole-building, after many centuries in the Pfinz, was used in the new construction of the unferer Scheuer, under the contradiction of the Zininierleute, who did not want to use it because of its fine hardness.

86 Becker sold most of it to citizens, of whom he was convinced that fie removed the hedges and hipsters so that the adjacent fields would be protected from flooding. Embedded between Kammerforft and Pfinz lies a part of diefer fieben Morgen des Landwehrfeldes, the füdöftliche corner of the Streickert, which the descendants of that Schultheiss Becker still have today in Befitze. The fields of the fogenannt N eureuthF) of which more than three acres were baptized in 1586 by the widow of Charles II, Anna, and her son Ernft Friedrich against the bridge field, push and pull at it up to Pfinzfteg. The Rankäcker (the find the ones that follow the curves of the road), which are situated next to the Streickertweg, just off Neureuth, belonged to Graben's daughter parish Neudorf; from them, as from Neureuth, the tithe had to be paid to Neudorf until the fine suspension. Fields and fields also have their history; but it is a pity that fie tell us little about the people who built fie, who fought over fie, or about the war camps, through which one fie devastated and about the misery and misery that befell the country and its people. Due to the many hundreds of years of cultivation, the Streickert is one of the busiest fields in the Graben area. Unfortunately it is not extended so that every citizen can have a part in it. In addition, some of the mornings of the abandoned area were taken away from development by the construction of the railways. Today one has the unpleasant accompanying symptoms of traffic from distant times in the immediate vicinity.

The idyllic silence of past centuries, which was interrupted only now and then by the Sahalmeien of the shepherd or the bang of the hunter's hooks and the howling of the pack when hunting the stag, which fled from the Kammerforft here, are forever gone.

The Margraves own Graben
The ditch was a feast for the nobility. "My gracious prince and lord, because of the three Huoben acres, also imprisoned wooden justice in the Baurenwald to Graben as other owners of the Huoben dafelbft," the camp books report. The noble and influential citizens of the village were the respective lords of the castles, for many centuries the Margraves of Baden-Durlach. Due to the personal relations of the citizens of Graben with the sovereigns, the border town of Graben enjoyed many advantages. The lordship of Befißtum as: Buildings, gardens, fields, cottages and woods, form an outstanding part of the village's assets due to their construction, size, privileged location and the continuity of the administration in the Lauf period. The castle with Berchfrit and kennel, surrounded by wall and ditch, served the lordship of the dwelling.  On the plan with the note: Tenth to Neudorf. Rent and Calf Pasture, which are annually increased by the Karlsruhe domain administration for the purpose of haymaking, find all other parts of the manor have been transferred to the Benefit of the municipality of Graben or individual citizens. Now we also wonder why the Fairy litters is not the property of the respective communities.  (Graben by Frederick Kemm, 1920)

4. the Brückenacker or Herrenwingert. The hill to the right of the Pfinz opposite the Zollbrücke from Hochgeftade to Landftraße and the low-lying "Wifel" as the northern boundary was called the B r ü cke na cke r in ancient times. Together with the other parts of the Graben district on the right Pfinzufer it belongs to the Gefchichte. How diefes came to the lordship and thus to Baden, mainly through its fine open location, we learn from a document from 1586*): "Anna Markgräfin from Baden Wittib and Margrave Ernft Friedrich zu Baden Vertaufch des Brückenackers. "We Anna etc. confess that we have named a piece of field, the small bridge field, the Anterthan Dietrich Kremer, against a piece of field in the Streucker, the Neureuth. After two acres and a half a quarter, the bridge field was located in front of the customs bridge in the diocese of Speyer, between the common road and the new brook, which is interest-free, single and its own. The latter receives from us a piece of field in the Streucker, called Neureuth, 2'/. Tomorrow 4 Rüthen, dergeftalt conceded, because from fine acres until now the toe in Neudorfer Zwing and Bann was a proper part of it, but our acres were free of interest and toes, so that the toe would reach out from fine acres handed over by us and the bridge acres, if it was answered to us in the baptism, would be free of interest and toes. Soon after the acquisition the margravine Anna died. Her son Ernft Friedrich, also called ift in the deed, had married fich on December 21, 1585 to the widow of Elector Ludwig 171. of the Palatinate, Anna née Countess of Emden. At her marriage Markgräfin was prescribed the fifth castle in Graben for her later widow's foot; Drunten an der Nordfee near Emden was her cradle. She was the daughter of Edzard II of Gftfriesland. When the Markgräfin from her castle in Graben looked out on the break, fie is vividly reminded of the lowlands of her north German homeland. So that her fine wife could also enjoy the sight of fich diefest outside the castle walls, Ernft Friedrich christened the larger, more productive Neureuth in the Streucker against the smaller bridge field with fine, light sandy soil, because he had the advantage that the free Ausficht could be enjoyed from him on the wide, flat Bruch and the blue mountains of the Palatinate. The bridge field was property of the Grabener citizen Dietrich Kremer, belonged however in Neudorf "Zwing und Baum" why from him the tenth to Neudorf had to be paid. With the acquisition to property and the payment of the tithe ') General-Landesarchiv Arkunden: 38/68.

124 married the barber Ruthardt von Kiefelbronn, who took over the "fine in-law" prison from his father. The Badftube has stood by until the fencing years of the last century. Today a descendant of that family Reichert, Julius Ruthardt, lives on the second floor of the old Badftube, in house no. 23 of Moltkeftraße, the former under gaffe. 6. the upper or new mill. The autumn of the year 1731 had gone into the country. Sunday rest lay over village and Zollftatt at the Speyrer border. It was after the morning service. There two men in their middle years, friends and margrave officials from the Zollbrücke walked the footpath next to the Pfinz along the Wehrhag through the Seegarten and out to the Hofmeß. Wendel Moß the Zoller was one of them, the Forftknecht David Schmidt the other. "We had a lot of work last week because of the hemp, which the farmers from Graben brought to the Engelmühle near Philippsburg to grate, while the "Bifchöfliche" took the customs duties", the Zoller said to fine friends. "Yes, a 'Hanfreib' mill would be very much needed here," replied Schmidt. * Anter diefen and similar discussions took place at the confluence of the rivers Pfinz and Heglach and went up the latter over the Allmendbrücke after the "Vogelsgefang" to the weir that had been built since "unimaginable" times for a "weapon", the "Mockengraben". For more than half a century, the "traffic jam" and "weapon diversion" facility had lost its actual purpose of filling the moat of the Wafferburg in times of danger, and the whole facility was in a state of complete decay, like the ruins of the castle. As a result of the Heglach guns, which flowed on a steep gradient, the forft servant became aware of the violence, and he believed that the power of the guns, which had lost its true purpose due to the "changed times", could be exploited in a contemporary way by planting a "hemp grater" and a mill. The idea was soon turned into reality. The result of this observation on Sundays was the "insignificant proposal" of the forft servant Schmidt to the margravial lordship. "about the "Hanfreib" and "Glmühle" to be erected on the Heglach next to Graben near the so-called "Allmendsbrücken" (Allmendsbrücken Bridge) behind the stately Seegarten (lake garden), namely at the sluice or weapon line thrown by the "ohnerdenk" years ago, which is completely ruined and nothing more than an old rudera*). by folche however, when it would be put in order, 1. the sea garden could be granted at all times and the hay yield could be increased, 2. by foreign tariffs could be achieved, since on the whole of Hardt and in the Rhine villages no such work would find to finden and the inhabitants of Graben would be forced to go out of the country and therefore have customs expenses. 'f debris

130 Dann wird wohl der Anblick des vom Drucke befreiten. feiner Feffeln entledigten Waffers der Heglach. das mit ftarkem Raufäien unter den Rädern hervorbricht und in wohlgefeßtem Steinbette unter der Allmendsbrücke hindurch der nahen Pfinz zueilt. auch fernerhin jenes enziehende Bild bieten. das feinen Reiz auf den Befcheuer nicht verfehlt. 7. Weg und Steg. „Alle ftraßen und weg. Bruckhen und Steg uff ganzer Grabener * Markung follen die zu Graben uff Iren coften In Baw unclegber erhalten und handhaben.“ Lagerbuch 1566. a- Die Römerftreße. Man fpricht im Dorf noch oft von ihr Der alten drauß im tiefen Walde, Sie zeige fich noch dort und hier, Am Feldweg und am Saum der Halde. Es führt ob ihr dahin der Steg; Der Pflüger mit dem Jochgefpenne Geht über ihren Grund hinweg. And Wurzeln fchlägt auf ihr die Tanne. Hermann clngg. Wie trefflich paffen die Worte des Dichters auch auf die ältefte Straße unferer Heimat! Geht nicht auch über fie im Streickert, in den Ruten, Gärten und im Heglacher Feld fchon Jahrhunderte der Pflug hinweg, und droben im Kohlpletten- und Blanken- locherfchlag wachfen Eichen, Buchen. Tannen und Forlen auf ihrem Grunde? Ihr Erforfcher, der Anthropologe l)1-. O, Ammon. fchreibt darüber in der Badifchen Landeszeitung von 1884: „Die fchnnrgerede Richtung der Römerftraße Mühlburg-Heidelberg ift auf dem bebauten Felde nördlich von Mühlburg an der Kiesfpur leicht zu verfolgen. In den alten Eichenfchlägen des Großherzoglichen Parks. welche die Aberrefte der urfprüng- lichen Bewaldung bilden. ift die Straße vorzüglich erhalten, Ihre meilenweit fchnnr- gerede fortlaufende Wölbung ift gar nicht zu überfehen und dem Forftperfonal längft bekennt. Den Park feiner ganzen Länge nach durchziehend. gelangt die Straße bei der Weldecke, wo die Heglach fich vom Walde trennt. auf die Grabener Felder. Hier ift fie wie bei Neureut nur an der Beimengung von Kies im Ackerboden (dem Brennbuckel), wo der Pflug kracht und das Getreide klein bleibt. zu verfolgen bis zum Kammerforft. in welajem fie wieder deutlich zu erkennen ift. Auf der 51 Kilometer langen Linie von Mühlburg bis Heidelberg wird keine Ortfchaft berührt; in drei Geraden von 20, 11 und 20 Kilometern wird die möglichft direkte Verbindung beider Orte hergeftellt. Die große Breite und die gerade Zugs- richtung beweijen, deß man es mit einer wichtigen Militärftreße zu tun ha 147. this was given to them by the Grabener Scl)ultheiß J. Ph, Kemm on the grounds that the Thüngenfche Graben had only been made to supply arms to the Philippsburg Féftung in case of need; there is no right to do so, especially since the Scl)le and the entrance to the Graben are on durlacl)i- fcl)em land fich. Thus about 20 years passed, the lock on the Pfinz still existed, and a kaiferlicl)er lock meifter still lived in Graben; but the Thüngenfche Graben had fallen apart. The dispute over the weapon was at rest. Then one day Wendel Munk, the Grabener Wäffermeifter and administrator of the Thüngenfche Schließe, reported to the Scl)ultheißenamt that he had heard that the Bifchof had been allowed by the municipality of Neudorf fei to dig the Thüngenfcl)en Graben in order to use it as a weapon ditch. Graben and Rußheim appealed to the Karlsruhe Oberamt, stating fie: "The lock is located in Graben territory, and the Graben serves only the Reichsfefte Philippsburg. When, on the threshold of the 19th century, Philippsburg had played out its fine role as the foundation of the empire, the devices used for fine defence in trenches were also dispensable. The Thüngenfche Graben, as we have seen above, had been decaying for several decades; the castle was now also being enlarged and demolished by the Grabeners with great pleasure. More than 100 years have passed without success; but the ravages of time have not been able to erase the traces of those military shooting measures for the "unfortunate" Philippsburg. As we noticed on our hike to the Hunehove, even today the basic walls of the Thunehove castle lie in the Pfinz, and the old walls on the river bank and the big stones in the river bed find with those are the stupid witnesses of Philippsburg's simple occupation. Even today, anyone who knows the story can repeat the tradition that has been passed down from one castle to the next: "From here, the fortification of Philippsburg was fought under arms. C. The break. 1. position and condition. In distant days, when the Rhine did not, as today, flow in a regulated and well-cared for bed as a free stream in miles and miles of extension and arbitrary windings led fine weapons to the north and the break was still a river bed. were created those semicircular arcs which still bear witness to the struggling weapon currents find and will more or less remain, two folcl) arcs find clearly visible at the Grabener "Rain". Like the inner edge of a large bowl with the green carpet of the quarry as its bottom, fich shows the füdlicl)e arch. from the Birkenbruch to the Liedolsheimer Weg- wende, still now in fine natural rounding, only dearer than at the time of fine formation; i0-

154 Now the fork was made again and the new weir at Galgengraben zwifchen Graben and Liedolsheim was divided in the ratio of three to two. In 1846, the current weir was built on the outskirts of the Bürgermeiftern Kammerer von Graben and Schuler von Liedolsheim. As if to live on the hewn stones ift, So finden we still know the proportions today: three parts of the weir from Galgengraben are taken up by the Neue Graben and lead fie into the Grabener Bruch, two parts flow through the Birkenbruch into the Scheidgraben. Since our fathers' time, fich has changed the quarry little. The Birkenbruä) ift with forest, in the Rainbruch and Odenbach awake reed and reed. which are improved to litter. and the cradle area is divided among the citizens evenly "verteilt"; but the Verloft no longer takes place every year, fondern always after ten years. Also the old division into "Große und Scheidgrabenftücker" is abolished. Today, each of the 600 citizens receives a good cradle with 12 ares of surface area and a smaller one of 6 ares with a lower income. Only twice a year the quarry is revitalized. during the time of the "hay" and the "Ghmderernte", but this only lasts for a few days. since the mowing of the whole quarry takes place at the same time, there are festive mowing ceremonies on the wide cradle plan. in summer only by the chirping of the cricket and occasionally by the call of birds. Who therefore once walked up in the forest at the Bruch in the shadow of the pines with the view of the Wiefental below, likes to steer fine steps again after work is done. to find peace and relaxation far away from the hustle and bustle of the people to finden. - And. stretched out on the Rainabhang. the forest to heads. under fich weit aus" spreads the green cradle surface and above all blue sky and sunshine - how does it dream fich feet in a cosy one-family 3. the middle quarry area. Cradle. Forest and fields can be found in the middle part of the quarry, which stretches between fich, Pfinz and your Liedolsheimer Weg. It is not yet two hundred years ago that the "Neufeld" was built here. A relatively small area is covered with forest, called Erlich, after the Shwarzerlen. It used to be different. In the middle of the 18th century, there were still "trichweis alders" Also here the Wiefen take by far the largest part; fie fich extend from the Pfinz up to the erften Gänfeweg. * trenches, parallel to Pfinz from the foot of the rains. where you can pick up the basic weapon that comes to light and feed it to the "Scheid" (ditch) with the seepage weapon of the Wiefen. From the Mühlbach or Pfinz the Mühlbachftücker move south to the OuatbaclF), today Katzbach, from there to the Melvert, the continuation of the Dohlgraben, *) quat. chot. Kot, old highdeutfch, still with Luther: it lies in sand and Ouat.163 The main occupation of our people, which fich had inherited for almost two thousand years from generation to generation, and which our ancestors had brought with them from the migration of the peoples and had transplanted to the native soil, was easily abandoned. Such loyalty honors our farmers who are attached to the S>)olle. May the thinking farmer, however, with the attentive reading of the preceding lines, become convinced that one is doing well, which one did not think so at first. May he, who nevertheless strives for the good, not let fine preconceived opinion go unchecked; then the community can prosper, then fich's lives well in our homeland, and the words rubbed with prophetic poison by Privy Councillor Preufchen over fie more than a hundred years ago will also be valid in the future: "If indeffen Graben felbften consider fine own felftes and feel the still hidden eyes of nature in their whole fractions, fo would discover it before fich still duels of the Reicl) tum, which would raise it to one of the swept places of the country and would feyen the good field with the cradle building in a natural relationship, on which the few places of their natural situation can be examined. “ 4. the unfere fracture or the cradle. Of the parts of the Graben district to the right of Pfinz, the lower quarry is the largest and most valuable area next to the Streucker. Scl)arf is bordered in the south by the Mühlbach or Pfinz, in the open the Hochgeftade the flat Wiefen area with the other two soaps merges imperceptibly into the Rußheimer Gemarkung. and only a shallow ditch and the boundary stones reveal the Scheid. For many hundreds of years the "Kleine" or "Neue Bach" divided the Brucl) area. The southern part is called the "upper", the northern part the "lower side". (Probably in former times it was called the "upper and lower rent", as the alfo named Domänenwiefen, which are situated near the village, suggest). The "upper side" is divided into two parts: the "Bruä)" gardens, which were built in the middle of the 18th century, are situated by the Mühlbach; the Reut dividers are attached to them; the "upper rent" forms the south-eastern end. The name Reufteiler might seem credible to our assumption above. The "unfere Seit" zerfiel in the "Ober- und Unterpläne" with the "unter Rent" as füdöftlicl)e limitation. When in the year 1312 Graben came to Baden-Durlach, fine Tochterfiedlung Greven- heaps, today's Neudorf, but remained under Speyer, an alienation of the inhabitants occurred with the time. The number of common meetings became less and less, but the number of common interests increased; it was good to think about a divorce. When and how this separation in the quarry was brought about, we find out by a "contract between my gracious Bifchof Ludwig and the Margrave of Baden weidgangs and fifchens half in the quarry by Graben of July 21, 1486") *) General State Archive: Documents 38/66169 The red beech is declining in growth in the Kammerforft as a result of litter use. erft quite well but in the meantime the soil has become much drier due to the Rhine regulation ift. The Forle ift is easy to get rid of, improves the soil and collects in quantity what it loses in value. Red beech and hornbeam are mixed with it häufig [ll. The Graben community forest. 1st story. At the beginning of the 18th century, the community forest consisted of the following parts: n) The so-called Eommun- or Bürgerwald, which for a long time was community forest and did not have to pay a tithe. b) The "Zehnt- or Hubenwald", which comprised two larger areas, the "Obern Zehntwald" on the secular side and the "Hahnenhofer Forlenwald" on the frequent side of the Bürgerwald. Diefe Zehntwaldungen used to be Hubenäcker and after the depopulation caused by the Thirty Years' War they were turned into forests. They were fenced into the game park*) and surrounded by diefem. According to the decree of 15 July 1711, the tenth pfennig of the value of the felled wood had to be paid; in 1712 and the following years fich charged the people of Graben with the tithes, but they were repeatedly turned down; in 1727 they were ordered to give the wood tithes in kind to help the neighbouring communities of Liedolsheim and Russheim. Later the tithe was allowed to be paid in money again. Because of its three Huben acres there, the lordship received 12 fathoms (32.4 ft.) of wood from the Huben forest annually. According to the contract of October 29, 1831, the tithe forest on the farms of the lordship was freed from the game park and united with the Bürgerwald. The payment of the tithe of wood still resting on the tithe forest was effected according to the contracts of 25 November 1831 and 27 Auguft 1832 by giving 101 acres of 314.7 rods of forest soil to the Arar**). in which area also the Hirfchgraben. was included as far as it goes into the community forest. The wood on the above-mentioned area was removed and distributed in such a way that the community received ditch 0.9, the Grand Duchy of Arar 0.1 part of the wood-carrying trick. e) The Erlich: On the secular side of the district, the community still had some woods, mainly alder. (l) Area measure: In the course of the 18th century, several changes in the forest area were made. Geometer Lorenz recorded the forest area in 1804 and surveyed it. *) After a comparison between the Grossh. Forftfiskus and the Hardtgemeinden because of the fence of the game park on 21 Auguft 1828 in Eggenftein, the fence was erected in 1818 to protect the adjacent fields from game. **) State ape. ***) move down: forest restoration.
177 11. timber spreading, The Rhine valley road. the road to Spöck and Friedrichstal passes through parts of the forest; in addition, there are a sufficient number of guideline and departmental guideline paths. By and large, the network of paths is sufficient. 12th Forftfchuß, Until 1901 the forests were divided into three districts. Today, the Friedrichstaler Straße divides the two existing hat departments into a frequent and a wefty half. To the latter half belongs also the "Zehntwald" (hundred-acre); for this the Grabener forest ranger is paid 90 marks per year from the domain coffee. 13. hunting. Hunting in the community forest belonged to court hunting until the appearance of the newer hunting-feet (Jagdgefeß of 2 December 1850). The game species find: roe deer, harbour, fafans. partridges. Foxes, sometimes wild boars, fallow deer and red deer due to the proximity of the park. Until 1848 there were complaints about significant damage to the game by biting off the shoots of forlene; in the spring of that year well over 100 roe deer were fished and the harbours were noticeably reduced. Now also the deciduous wood came up of which one believed earlier. it was held down with the scissors. The present wildlife does not exert a negative influence on the forest culture. Hunting is now once again the property of the community. Price of the game: 1834 1913 noble game . 1 Pfd. 8 Kr. : 0.23 Mark 0.60 Mark Fallow deer, , 1 " 10 " : 0.29 .. 0.60 " Wild boar 1 " 221/. „ : 0.58 „ 0.80 ,. Deer... 1 ,. 12 ., : 0.54 „ 0,70 ,. Winter harbour. 1h55 " : 1.57 " 3.50 " summer port. 1, 52, 7; 1.49 " - Fafan. . 1st, 2nd fl. 42nd, : 3.63rd, 2.80th, partridge. 1 .. 30" : 0.86 _., 1.00" snipe. 1 ,. 1 fl. 23 " L 2.37.. 3.00" Quail. . 1st, 15th: 0.43" - big duck. . . 1 .. 36 ., :: 1.03 „ 2.00 .. Small duck. . . 1, 18 " : 0.51 " 1.40 " Bekajine (small snipe) 1. 15 ,. : 0.43., 0.80 1859 were among others shot in the Kammerforft: 1 badger. 5 foxes. 1 wildcat, 2 martens. 3 illiffe. *) according to the camp book at old times Gemeindebefitz. fie was leased from the farm. kienini, Grlrliirlilr oon ditch. 12

193 which today are still awakened in every Grabener at the sound diefer two words, emerge again and again from the legally not quite perfect elevation of the wooden tithe and the resulting Oerluft of the "hundred acres". Since l8) 8, the *years of fencing, the tithe seems to have been raised in money too finely; with this, an old wish of the community was taken into account, probably not out of "love for the inhabitants of Graben, fondern for the protection of the" WildeO in the enclosed forest, _ With the hundred acres, the fence also went: today, all paths are free again. One can now walk the Kreuz and (Quer, with free singing in the free home forest. [ll. Hubengüter-Waldftreit, Among the three manorial hubs of 96 acres, which were sold to l) Grabener Bürger in 1751, were also three pieces of wood, hedges and Eggerten (Drachland): the Cieifengrund, da9 Teufelslocl) iin Scheidig and the Hirfchfulz jenfeitv der Heglach. When the chief hunter Geibel wanted to take the small forest bag, "fchniale Striemen within the community Waldev", for the lordship in Rnfvrucl), the Huben* received goods>buyers on a previous purchase on 21 July l 759 were awarded the forest bag in question, al*:- belonging to the sold lordship's farmland. Revenge 25 years, it was written in 1776, found once again after the death of the lordship as. Landowner cut wood in the devil's hole ftatt. The court and the council also wanted to clear the under-stoned, formerly commercial forest for the general public, as fie were of the opinion that the forest had fallen to the community through the sale of the hoisting goods. The Forftamt, on the other hand, argued that the "scattered, free herrfchaftlichen Waldftücker" were part of the "Matheur. Scholl and Konforten sold three forest estates and "he" would be most mistaken if fie were ceded by the buyers for cheap payment; since the forest could not be denied to them, fo would be good for buying. With the reason that only 69 acres of field could be taken up by the lordship and belonged to three hubs O6 acres, were claimed by the buyers: l. 3 acres of forest in the Ueifengrund; 2, 19 " " in the Teufelslocl) (Scheidig); 3. 2 " " in the Hirfchfulz fenfeitv the Heglach. No agreement was reached. The people of Dorfeitv declared that they did not intend to buy the forest, since only fields were sold when lifting goods were sold; for the forest belonging to it the buyers received wood aura of the community forest. They did not take into account that the Margrave had dealt with the forest of property in addition to the wood justice and that the forest had been legally handed over to the buyers of property U59. Kemm, Urlctiiilitr of Graben. 13

209 [Z. The guns. 1. the Pfinz and its Zitflüffe. Graben lies in the river basin of the Rhine. The Pfinz ift finally left the Sainmelbecken of all the weapons of the fine district. At one of the outermost foothills of the northern Black Forest, on marshy cattle yard between Langenalb and Pfinzweiler, fie appears as (spring. The small brooklet forms the border of the two neighbouring states for a short distance; then it enters the Badifche area. Since there is a bathing. ift the Pfinz well badifch. After a 12--15 hour run, generally north-weftly, fie flows into the Old Rhine near Rußheim. From the left fie the arms of the last Black Forest mountains laffen. From the right the brooks of the adjacent hilly country flow to it. Through the valley of Pfinz an important connecting road from Württemberg leads to the densely populated Rhine valley, Wer von Durlach. where fie leaves the hilly country and enters the Rhine valley. follows its course to reach the time-honoured Kaiferftadt Speyer, which crosses fie at Graben near the place where fie falls over the Hochgeftade. In Stutenfee the Pfinz cedes the largest part of its weapon to the Heglach. which reaches Graben on the short way, while that in large curve over Staffort. Spöck and Neuthard; here the air of the weapon is soon replaced by the inflow of the Weingartenbach and Grumbach coming from the hilly country on the right. After the Pfinz has united all the weapons that come to it from its source to the Graben. in its bed. ift fie is a rather fattening river. The damming at the lower mill in Graben further increases the hostility. It also carries the proud name of Seebach and can be navigated comfortably by boat; but ift is required that fie does not become too boisterous. The overflow of weapons takes away from it as if from felbft. since the waste into the Kleine Bach is at the same time Eichhöhe ift. In earlier centuries the Pfinz must have had considerably more waffles; for rafts*) went on it to the Rhine and "stone barges") to Graben. Only a short stretch is the Pfinzwafjer united. Above the mill, the Landgraben branches off to the right beside the Kleine Bach. In former times it formed the border between the margraviate and the diocese of Speyer up to the Rhine and was at the same time the dividing line of the districts Graben and Neudorf. Today it flows into the Pfinzkanal. The designation ... new ", which the small brook still leads. be" entitles to the conclusion on future plant. It was used for the arming of the plans * On 1760 fich the Dutch timber merchant de Wall, who wants to build a raft in "Philipps" castle, was charged by the margrave. In Neuthard fine servant celebrates him. who came down on the Pfinz with a raft. has been kept at bay by the speyrichs because he did not want to pay any duty which he has already paid in Durlach. -- The "Waffer" process on the outside of the lower mill is now called "noä) der Raftkaften". **Mayor Joh. Ph. Kemm asks the Margrave to open the pond of the community of Graben, so that fie can use it as an unloading place when stone barges come down Pfinz. 172111111, (History of Graben. |4 215 Zahlung des ganzen Kapitals nebft Zinfen mit dem jährlichen Pacl)tzins auf den erften Februar. Nach Verlefen anerkannt und unferfchrieben: Der Vertreter des Großh. Aerars: *Die Vertreter der Gemeinde: Menzer, Bezirksförfter. B.A.V.: Gemeinderat Kammerer, Nr. 11 148. Genehmigt: „ J. Weick, Karlsruhe, den 9. Auguft 1851 „ W. Hörner. Direktion der Forff», (Berg- und Hüttenwerke I. A. d. D.: v. Gemmingen.“ Die Grabener Gemeindejagd wird heute jeweils auf 6Jahre verpacl)tet ; die laufende Pachtzeif geht vom 1. Februar 1911 bis 31. Januar 1917. 1. Abteilung: der öftlicl)e Teil der Gemarkung, von der Spöcker Grenze bis zur Heglach und vom Hardtwald bis an die NeudorferGemarkung Mark 730.- 11. Abteilung: der mittlere Teil der Gemarkung, von der Heglach bis zur Land» ftraße nach Karlsruhe . . . . . . . . . . . . „ 590.- 111. Abteilung: der weltliche Teil der Gemarkung, von der Linkenheimer Straße bis an die Gemarkungen Liedolsheim, Rußheim und Neudorf .. 503. - Jährliche Einnahme Mark 1823.- 3. Die Scl)wefelquelle. Am 17. September 1767 wurde vom Markgrafen Karl Friedriä) befohlen, das Waffer der neu entdeckten mineralifchen (Quelle in Graben chemifcl) zu unterfuchen. Die Prüfung ergab einen Schwefelgehalt, „welcher der Langenbrücker nahe kam.“ Doch war man nicht imftande, das Waffer rein zu faffen. Nachdem der Koftenvoranfcl)lag für die Faffung mit 133 fl. 35 Kreuzer genehmigt war. wird die Quelle 1769 gefaßt. Der Brunnenmeifter Späth von Durlach berichtete hierüber: „Da die befte (Quelle gegen denen Wiefen zu fich verloren habe, fo müffe man die noch vorhandenen gegen die Mühle zu verftopfen, um zu fehen, ob die andere (Quelle fich dadurcl) wieder zeige, oder aber bei kleinem Waffer die Neue Bach abfcl)lagen und der verlorenen (Quelle nacl)» graben.“ Darauf wurde der Befehl erteilt, man folle die Einfaffung zum Verfuch der Wiedererhebung wegreißen. Hofrat Preufchen, der fich von der Ausnuyung der Scl)wefelquelle großen Vorteil für Graben verfprach, berichtete nach ihrer Entdeckung und der beabfichtigten Ver- wertung an den Markgrafen Karl Friedrich:

341 Phone and subject names. Dllmendgut, transition to private ownership 242 ff. Vnglachgau 14. Rnfiedler, ältefte 9, Vriovift 12. Wufnahme, civil 240 ff. Emigrants, names 317 ff. peasant war 24. axe) 266. birch quarry 10. blockbfißen 274. bonnet 10, 13, 77. castle ditch 13, 17, 56 ff. Castle and village 18, 21, 59, castle, destruction 62 ff. Burglicbäcker 13, 77. *Lüchenauer Hardt 15, 168, Bürgermeifter 235 f. Bürgerußen 243 ff. Bruchberg 7, 47. Bruchfal kings' court 15 Cälar, Juliua 11. Chriftenlum, Rnfäuge 283. Dehemen 266. Dohlgraben 49 f., 210. cathedral, Speyrer 15. Dreifelderwirtfcbaft 71. Einbäumlein, brooklet and Waffer- fcheid 80. Eifenbabn, erfte 201 f., Eifeuburger, Benovator 25. annex 9, 49, Erlen, Sieben 85 f. Fabrjcjus, Dr. Prof. 12. Faftnachtsbraucl) 290, 313. field cleaning_ 74. front cleaning 261 ff. Front-office 257 ff. corridors_or show 71, 75. finding_bronze time 10 f. Finds, römlfclye 13, gallows ditch 205, 280, gaffs, medieval 48 f. Gaffs, modern 53 f. Births around 1700 296. counter-reformation 28 f. Convoy, free 47th municipal renewal, old 245 f. modern 250 f. Court in the open 275 f. historical from the churches* books 296 ff. Wanne, field 75 ff. Gewanne,2iamenerklärung75ff.,330ff. Gewanne, Neufeld 155 f. Gewanne, (Oberbrua) 149 f. Gewanne, Streickert 85 f. Gewanne, Wald 202 ff., Gewanne, Wiefen 155, 163 f. Götter, germanifche 281st Graben, attack on Baden 17 f. Graben, ältefte (Zqnfictit 5, GrabenxBelagerung 21, 57 Graben, Burgherren 'von 56 ff. Graben, castle and village 17th Graben, divestment of the. name 70. ditch-new village station 52. ditch-reud village, separation kirchliGe 25, 66, ftaatliche 25, wirtfctyaft* liche 23, 66. ditch, palatinate life 21. ditch, palatinate life (redemption) 36. Graben, destruction 33. Grawo 13, 70, border rampart 12. Grevenhart 67,*_70, 79. Grevenbaulen 23, 25, 46,66, 70,163. Großberzöge Friedrich l. 41, 45. Karl Z9, 112. Karl Friedrich 38, 112, 123, 240,


10 den Stab aller tionen malefez ltröffliclfem) und Uidern gerichtlichen “furisdictionW Oberlceit und kierrlicneit und was demfelben anlfangt/ als UemlicmGebott/ verbott/ früvelxi") straffen und Guoffen/Xiucl) alle andern LZecntx Gerectftiglceiten und dienftbarlcettenx und fonft niemandt anderfz/ wie etlia] maffen bei-naa) weiter underfctfidlict] befctfriben oolgt. Das Glait betreffendt. das Glatt zu Graben/ fo lfoctfermeltem meinem gnedigen fiirfien und Herrn etc. zuftendig/ geet aulz und an/ an der pfinzbruclcen dafelbft/ ?ufo das fein fiirftlicn gnaden über die Gruclcea nin- über/ und das Gifiumb Spenr/ mit und neben der Cnurfürfilictfen pfallz/ allein biß zu derfelben Gruclcen/ und nit daruff nocli dariiber zu gelaiten lfaben. Sonft geet die Gemein Glatt ftraßen von Graben uff Glanclcen- loctf und miilburg zu. Es lfatt aber mer kioclfgedaclfter mein gnediger fiirfi und kferr etc. uff allen andern neben ftraffen Im Gantzen Grabemer fimpt/ zu Waffer und zu Landt/ fo weit fick] feiner frftl. gnaden Landtjzfiirft- lictfe Oberlceit erflreclct/ allein zu glaiten/ one meniglictfs eintrag/ Irrung oder fnndernußf) den Dorft belangendt. »die Dorfilictfe Oberlcejtx mit aller derfelben anlfangenden gerech- tiglceiten und dienfibarleeiten/ Im Gantzen Grabemer kunpt/ Ift gleictfwol tfoctfgedactftem meinem gnedigen fürfien und kferrn/ aucl) eigentnumblicl] znftendig. Es wird aber folictfs In einer fondern Ernewerung befclfriben. Gemeine Dienft und frau, ?alle Undertlfanen und Einwoner zu Graben/ In dem marekt/ deß- gleiclfen der mager-W) uff dem Üeinbofe/lil) leben mer lfoctfgemeltem *) Zlutgerictft. **) liectftfpkeclfnng. ***) Geldflrafe. f) Einfprnctf/ Irrtum oder Hindernis. if) Gntsoeewaltet/ partner. 7|) Siet] kmnenofe unter Grund und Boden.