Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Philipp Scholl 1825-1897

Philip Scholl was born February 12, 1825 in Graben, Karlsruhe (pronounced karls -roo a) , Baden, Germany to Christina Scholl and an unknown man according to his birth certificate. Philipp was baptized on February 15th at 1pm.  From 1823 to 1827 Aloys Henhöfer was the Parish Pastor (Pfarrer) in Graben. Aloys recorded the birth of Philipp Scholl on the 12th of February 1825 and three days later, baptized Philipp Scholl 15 February 1825. He documented the ordinance into the Graben Parish Record. 

Pastor Henhöfer once wrote: With a great portion of our people all moral conceptions have been lost or so weakened that they have become void of all influence upon their lives. They believe black to be white and white black...The bottom cause is told briefly with one word: The falling away from God and His Anointed; from Christ and His Word-unbelief.... (History of the Evangelical Association: 1850-1875, By Reuben Yeakel)

Two years after Philipp was born on April 19, 1827 Philipp's mother Christina married Wilhelm Johan Martin Kochler. Wilhelm's wife Maria Elisabetha Heinle died months before. Together Wilhelm and Elisabetha Heinle had seven children from 1813 to 1826. Elisabetha died 18 February 1827. Both Wilhelm and Elisabetha were born in Graben. 

On October 1, 1943 Philipp's mother Christina died. Philipp is 18 years old.  Philipp immigrated to New York where he made shoes, probably in 1848. He married Elizabeth Kelch (or Kelsch from Rineland, Germany).in New York City. They had eight children from 1849 to 1865 in New York City (16 years). First came Frederick, then Elizabeth, Philip, Christina, Elizabeth, Lydia, George Philip, and Josephine.

Philipp Scholl 1825-1897 has been located in the U.S., Selected Federal Census Non-Population Schedules, 1850-1880 in Ancestry.  He is listed as P. Schell in a non-population industry report from 1860. His shop was in the 8th Ward, close to the 11th ward where he lived. In 1855 he lived in the 7th ward which was even closer.

According to the report in 1859 he employed 3 men made:

            800 pairs of boots

            300 pairs of shoes

            Other work

He grossed $5,000 a year.  Cost of supplies and labor was$ 4,200 so he made a profit of $800.

$800 today is $26,872.48

In the 1850 NYC directory and the 1860 census he is listed as a shoemaker. The family lived at 67 Montgomery street.  So at 25 Philipp is a shoemaker in NYC. No doubt this means he was from a privileged family or a middle class family in Graben. The middle class had access to the guilds to learn a trade or to universities. He probably was apprenticed soon after turning 10, then became a journeyman and later became had his mastership in shoe construction. At the time children between the ages of 13 to 15 were considered adults. 

(2 Immigration possibilities: SCHRADER-MUGGENTHALER, CORNELIA. The Baden Emigration Book. Apollo, PA: Closson Press, 1992. 193 pp 1848 Philipp Scholl or BURKETT, BRIGITTE. Nineteenth Century Emigrants from Baden, Volume 2: Graben, Linkenheim, Spock & Staffort. Rockport, ME: Picton Press, 2001.)

By 1870 he moved his family to Arago, NE, became a very successful farmer and raised his children in a rural environment mainly populated by immigrant Germans. Philipp died January 13, 1897 and is buried with his wife in the little cemetery located behind the Zion United Church of Christ, between Arago and Falls City, NE.

During Philipp's life:
There are quite number of buildings today that were in Graben when Philipp lived there. Some of them are old houses. One structure is the Löwen Restaurant . This is where Gerd Hartmann, our tour guide during our 2019 visit to Graben, and we had lunch. Löwen is German for lion. Here is a little history on Gerd's connection to this famous Graben landmark:

The Löwen Restaurant
Johann Jakob Hartmann came from Württemberg to Graben in 1848. In this time Württemberg and Baden were separate states. After the World-War II. the state Baden-Württemberg was founded. After some years he returned to Graben and in 1858 he married his second wife named Marie (Mary) Kammerer. With her he bought the Löwen and ran it as landlord and butcher. So we know that the Löwen must be older, because he didn`t build it. Because of the steep roof of the Löwen we can suppose, that it was built earlier. The Löwen was run over generations of Hartmanns. The last owner and landlord Emil Hartmann sold it in 1980 and went to Switzerland, where he died in 2018 at the age of 95.

1 Graben Pastor while Philipp lived there:
Christoph Käß (1827 - 1840) * 1796 Mannheim † 1843 in Diedelsheim (studies in Heidelberg, exams in 1816, then vicar of the French community in Mannheim, 1821 pastor in Hochstetten, 1827 in Graben , 1840 - to his death in 1843 in Diedelsheim - "originally more fanatical nationalist took K. to influence Henhöfers he initially had fought in the strongest terms, a strictly positive attitude a . co-founder of the bad. association for external Mission. One of seven upright in the Catechism dispute, he in the by -invasive various headings ". [ Pastor's Book of Evangelical Church of Baden from the Reformation to the Present (1939) - D. Heinrich Neu])

1822 Adolph Kußmaul was born 3 years before Philipp in 1822 and later became a world famous physician with many first time discoveries. Not only that but Adolph's brother Hans Wilhelm Mortz Kussmaul was baptized three days before Philipp. Adolph's father Dr. Phililpp Jacob Kussmau lived in Graben at least from 1822 to 1825. He could  be the Doctor who delivered Philipp.

1825 Philipp Scholl is born to Christina Scholl on February 12
1827 Beethoven died 26 March 1827 when Philipp is 2 years old
1828 Schubert died 19 November 1828 when Philipp is 3
1833 Johannes Brahms was born 7 May 1833, Philipp is 8

1848 Middle Class Revolution
The German Revolutions of 1848-49 must have touched Phillipp deeply. Seeing the freedom that the USA and France had, the middle class in "Germany" and in particular Baden revolt against the Nobility. They tired of the taxes and oppressive regime. Unfortunately the Prussian army came in and crushed the rebellion. It wasn't until 1871, that Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. Before 1871 Germany for all intents and purposes was a loose confederation of Nobility areas. We are not positive about the exact date Philipp emigrated to America but it was around this time that Philipp and many other middle class Germans gave up on the German promise of freedom and left for America.

1948 Zachary Taylor becomes President of the USA
1849 California Gold Rush begins
1850 President Taylor dies and Vice President Millard Filmore becomes the 13th President
1852 The Grand Duke of Baden, Leopold, dies, He was the noble who Philipp was under while growing up and when he left Germany. In1855 Philipp will renounce his allegiance to the new Duke of Baden when he becomes a naturalized US citizen.
1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska
1857 Utah War, armed confrontation between Mormon settlers and US Government
1860 Lincoln delivers his Cooper Union speech while running for President.  Lincoln later said, “Brady and the Cooper Union speech made me president.”
1861 Lincoln becomes President
1861 Civil War begins
1861 When Lincoln’s trained crossed New York State lines on February 16, 1861 a crowd of 15,000 was waiting for him. Lincoln addressed them, ‘Standing as I do with my hand upon this staff, and under the folds of the American flag, I ask you to stand by me so long as I stand by it!” 
1863 NYC Draft Riots, citizens in Lower Manhattan, where Philipp lived, riotted against Congress drafting them into the Civil War
1865 April 14, Lincoln assassinated
1865 April 25 Funeral procession in NYC for President Lincoln, With his assassination, Lincoln became an overnight sensation in New York. On April 17, three days after the assassination, more than 150,000 people turned out on Broadway to pass Lincoln lying in state at City Hall. Profound mourning did not get in the way of the hustle: Lincoln pictures, Lincoln plates, Lincoln ribbons, Lincoln lockets, all appeared and were big enough to fit the martyred president’s image
1867 Nebraska becomes a state
1868 14th Amendment passes enshrining due process and equal protection
1869 Transcontinental Railroad is completed at Promontory Summit, Utah
1870 Philipp moves to Nebraska
1876 Wild Bill Hickok is killed by Jack McCall while playing poker
1879 Thomas Edison creates first light bulb
1881 Gunfight at the OK Corral, Tombstone, Arizona Territory
1893-1897 Serious economic depression called the panic of 1893
1897 January 13, Philipp Scholl dies, Philipp lived 71 years 11 months 1 day
1902 December 7, Elizabeth Kelsch Scholl dies, Elizabeth was without Philipp 5 years 11 months 11 days.

Documents related to Philipp Scholl:

Philipp Scholl bap 15 Feb 1825 birth 12 Feb 1825film 102550955 page 551
Translation by Marion Wolfert:
On the 12 February, 1825 born around noon and christened on the 15 February at 1 o’clock was Philipp SCHOLL. He was the illegitimate child of Christina SCHOLL(in), who was the daughter of the deceased Wendel SCHOLL and wife Katharina
Witnesses are:
1. The citizen Wilhelm KRAUß,
2. His wife Katharina nee
3. The citizen Philipp KRAUß,
4. His wife Margaretha nee SCHOLL
dated 15 Feb 1825
Philipp Scholl birth 1825 film 102078348 page 983

Translation by Marion Wolfert
Born on the 12 February 1825 at noon and christened at one in the afternoon on the 15 Feb 1825 was Philipp. He was the illegitimate son of Christina SCHOLL(in), who was the legitimate daughter of the deceased Wendel SCHOLL and wife Katharina nee NUCHTER, (in).
Witnesses are:
1. The citizen Wilhelm KRAUSS,
2. His wife Katharina nee Nagel,
3. The citizen Philipp KRAUSS,
4. His wife Margaretha nee SCHOLL
Translation of birth document:
Illegitimate (on left), The 12 Feb at night towards 12 o'clock was born and the 15th of Feb baptized at 1:00 o'clock, Philip the mother of this child is Christina Scholl, legitimate daughter of the deceased Wendel Scholl and his wife Catharina geboren Neutcher.
Witnesses: Willhelm Krauss, and his wife Katharina geboren (maiden name) Nagel, Philipp Krauss a Bürger (citizen) and his wife Margaretha geboren (maiden name) Scholl. (signed) Herhöfer Pfr.
Notes: Pfarrer or Pastor - höfer means a farmer from a specific farm (Hof), such names are often used in Austria.
Notes: Margaretha is Christina's next older sister b 1784. She married Philip Krauss in Graben 15 Feb 1825. (Note: while Phillip's grandfather Wendel Scholl died 8 years before in 1817. Catharina is very much alive. She will enjoy seeing baby Philipp for exactly 9 months and on the 12the of November 1828 see passes. Catharina lived 68 years 7 months 26 days.)

Who are Wilhelm Krauss and Katharina Nagel?
Wilhelm Krauss (MQB2-LH1) was born 13 Sep 1782. He married Eva Katharina Nagel 17 Feb 1818 in Graben. Katharina was born 27 May 1793 and died 20 Dec 1862 at 69 years. Wilhelm died 17 Jun 1838
. Wilhelm Krauss was a citizen and farmer according to Eva Katharina Nagel's death record.

Document from the Audrey Scholl estate. 
In the year of Christ One Thousand Eight Hundred and Twenty Five the twelfth night of February about noon was born and the fifteenth afternoon 1 o'clock was baptized
Philipp Scholl illegitimate.
The mother of the child is Christina Schollin married daughter of Wendel Scholl and his wife Maria Katherina born Nüchterin.
Baptismal witnesses:
1. Wilhelm Krauss, citizen
2. his wife Katherina born Nagel
3. Philipp Krauss, citizen
4. his wife Margaretha born Scholl
Pastor: Henhöfer Pfarrer The accuracy of the extract is confirmed
Evang. Pastor Trench

Pastor Aloys Henhöfer, the man who baptized Philipp Scholl.

The stone cross with the date 1619 indicates the enlargement to the far side; the number 1710 on the other side of the stone indicates the coarsening in the opposite direction. In 1823 the cemetery was still surrounded by a thornhag. Pastor Henhöfer wanted the cemetery to be closed to the public by bleaching the wood and building a wall around it.

Johann Martin Köhler born 1786 Familienbuch (Family Book)film 102118620 page 962

1855 New York State Census NYC Philipp Scholl page 25

1860 IS Cemsis 3rd Division 11th Ward NYC, NY Philipp
Scholl page 67

1856 Philip Scholl and his first son Frederick, NYC

Philipp renounced allegiance to Leopold Grand Duke of Baden in 1855 .

Court of Common Pleas for the City and County of New York Document 1

Court of Common Pleas for the City and
County of New York Document 2

Court of Common Pleas for the City and County of New York, Document 6

Common Pleas City and County of NY (1-801)
Court of Common Pleas for the City and
County of New York (145-147) - Signature, Document 7
Apparently Henry Mangold acted as a character reference when Philipp Scholl went before
the Court of Common Pleas in NY County when Philipp applied for Citizenship. 
1857 NYC Directory

Philipp Scholl 1825-1897 has been located in the U.S., Selected Federal Census Non-Population Schedules, 1850-1880 in Ancestry.  He is listed as P. Schell in a non-population industry report from 1860. His shop was in the 8th Ward, close to the 11th ward where he lived. In 1855 he lived in the 7th ward which was even closer.

According to the report in 1859 he employed 3 men made:

            800 pairs of boots

            300 pairs of shoes

            Other work

He grossed $5,000 a year.  Cost of supplies and labor was$ 4,200 so he made a profit of $800.

$800 today is $26,872.48
President Lincoln is reported to have said said, “Brady and the Cooper Union 
speech made me president.” February 27, 1860, Matthew Brady, photographer. 
There is a good chance Philipp went to Lincoln's speeches and funeral in NYC.

The Funeral of President Lincoln, New-York, April 25th, 1865, From Library of Congress.

President Lincoln's Funeral Procession in New York City - Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper Drawing

1870 US Census Philipp Scholl Richardson Nebraska
Township 2 Range 17

1880 Census Philipp Scholl Family
1880 census: 
In 1880 Philipp Scholl is living next to his son Frederick on the south and on the north he borders August Weinert (his daughter Fannie's father in law)  and also Frederick Zimmerman and Frederick's wife Christina Köhler. Christine or Christina is Philipp's half sister! People at the time lived close for protection and mutual support. 

1885 Nebraska State Census, Philipp Scholl Richardson, Arago page 8

Church Register, Arago, Richardson, NE

Arago Church Records for Philipp and Elisabeth Kelsch

Zion United Church of Christ Cemetery, Arago, Falls City area, Nebraska