Monday, March 9, 2020

Maria Katharina Nüchter 1757 - 1825

Maria Katharina née Nüchtern was born 17 March 1757 to Johann Thomas Nüchtern and Maria Katharina Obermeyer 1720-1794. She married Johann Martin Köhler 3 October 1786 when she was 29 years old. This was the second marriage for Johann Martin. Maria Katharina died 10 November 1825. Maria was buried on the 12th, exactly 9 months after her daughter Christina delivered Philipp Scholl. She lived 68 years 7 months 26 days.

The word Nüchter means sober in German. Nüchterin means sober woman. Some people put the word née as a middle name. According to researcher Peter Bertschinger that word has no meaning. Thus we have removed it from our records. 

What happened to Maria Katharina's children?
Wilhelm Scholl  1 April 1788 -14 April 1788
Wilhelm Scholl 23 Nov 1789 - 6 Jan 1858, his grandson William Scholl  emigrated to Falls City
Elisabetha Scholl 6 Feb 1792 -7 May 1846
Margaretha Scholl 11 Sep 1794-8 Feb 1856
Christina Scholl 22 April 1798-1 Oct 1843, her son emigrated to Falls City
Salome Scholl 27 Aug 1801- 25 Feb 1829

During their lives:
1755 Streets
In 1755, the streets began to be paved.  The material for this came largely from the ruins of the (Graben) castle. The mayor's name was written above it. Some of them need to be paved: "It has come to pass that the most gracious lordship of the parish." (Graben by Konrad Dussel)

The first emigrants from Graben 1700s
Although the wars of the 17th century were essentially a thing of the past in the 18th century, the peacetime of the 18th century brought a new challenge to the Margraves of Baden in general and to Graben in particular: The population exploded. In Graben it grew from 176 (1702) to 420 (1756) - an increase of 240 percent in just five years. Of course, this was in part only a supplemental increase.

But the question was: what would happen if the living conditions could not be expanded accordingly?  Due to the prevailing division of wealth, the inheritances became smaller and smaller - the land became scarce. In this situation there seemed to be only one solution for many people: to expand into countries
wandering, where everything was much better. Apart from the vast expanses of east and southeast Asa, North America seemed to be the best suited for this.
However, it is no longer possible to make a clear decision as to why the emigrants left.

The question is whether it was only the poor living conditions at home that drove them away, or whether the promise of a better life was the main reason for their hunting. It was always a mixture of both, with the proportion of the population varying from case to case. The attraction of the emigration destinations cannot be ignored because it would be difficult to explain why the emigrants did not simply scatter everywhere, but rather had clear signs of the time when they were in the country.

Leaving a German country was not possible without further ado.  One did not like to lose subjects who were considered to be an important productive force, and certainly not if they were serfs from whom one profited especially much. As a deduction tradesmen must be deprived of a part of the property. The limits of the reign were quickly reached. The boundaries of the dominion were quickly defined in the Graben Law Book, the Stock Book of 1566, which will be discussed in more detail in a moment. (Graben by Konrad Dussel)

The village and its inhabitants 1700s
For centuries the village and its inhabitants had not had a pillar (record) of their own; when it appears in documents and records, it is actually only as an object of superior rule. All other aspects left almost no traces. It was not until the 18th century that this began to change gradually, and more and more records and documents give an impression of life in Graben and its rules. Very often, however, they are only fragments, because at that time, no self-evident facts were written down, and so many questions remain open or cannot be answered with the certainty that is the rule for later years.

Even the question of municipal offices is a problem in itself, and is initially quite easy to answer. Most important was the mayor appointed by the authorities for life. He had not only administrative but also judicial functions, where he was supported by a group of jurors, the so-called court relatives. In addition, there was also the council. However, the council and the court almost always acted together, so that it is difficult to make out exact differences. And how exactly did one become a sheriff, a court relative or a councillor? For Graben, clear answers can only be given for the 19th century. For earlier times, one has to be content with misleading names and little additional information. (Graben by Konrad Dussel)

Documents related to Maria Katharina Nüchter:
Maria Katharina née Nichter birth 17 March 1757 death included, film 4137289 page 492,
Ulrich Neitzel:Transcription :
1757 d. 17. Martii, Thomas Nichtern became a daughter to the assessor ex uxore Maria Catharina noctu hora 10: born, then baptized and given to Maria Catharina. The godfathers are Philipp Heinr: Heilmann civis et rusticus, Johann Adam Koehler civis et rusticus, cum uxoribus.
[in the left margin] + d 10 Novb 1825
On 17 March 1757 at 10 o'clock at night a little daughter was born to Thomas Nichter, the juryman, from his wife Maria Catharina, so thereafter was baptized and named Maria Catharina.
Baptismal sponsors are Philipp Heinrich Heilmann, citizen and farmer, Johann Adam Koehler, citizen and farmer, with wives.
[in te left margin] + (died) 10 November 1825
The Pastor who made this record was Christian Henr. Beck.

film 1022078348 page 743

Transcription by Ulrich Neitzel:
d. 3ten Oct: Wendel Scholl, der alhisige Bürger und Wittwer und Maria Catharina Nüchterin gebohrene Nüchterin Weÿl Thomas Nüchtern, geweßten Hintersaßen dahir und Maria Catharina, gebohrene Obermeierin nachgebliebene ehelich erzeügte ledige Tochter.
3 October [1786]: Wendel Scholl, local citizen and widower, and Maria Catharina Nüchter née Nüchter, left behind, legitimately conceived, unmarried daughter of the late Thomas Nüchter, non-citizen resident here, and Maria Catharina née Obermeier.           The Graben Pastor who performed the wedding was J. J. Ritter.

Adam Wendel Zwercker father Christoph Mother Maria Sidonia 31 July born film 102078348 page 643
Translation by Robert Seal:
On the 31st of July [1788] in the morning at 5:00 am born and on the1st of August [1788] baptized: Adam Wendel [Zwecker]
Father: Christoph Zwecker, the local citizen and master joiner.
Mother: Maria Sidonia, née Meierin.
Baptismal witnesses: (1) Johann Adam Wenz, the local citizen and master mason, and (2) his wife Anna Maria, née Schollin. (3) Wendel Scholl, the local citizen.
Written faintly in the right column: to Hungary.
*Maria Katharina Nucherin and Wendel Wendel Scholl 19 Nov 1788 film 102078348 page 645
Translation by Robert Seal:
On the 8th of November [1788], at night at 10:00 pm born and on the 10th of the same month baptized: Johann Philipp [Bickel].
Father: Johann Adam Bickel, the local non-citizen resident.
Mother: Eva Catharina, née Baslerin.
Baptismal witnesses: (1) Christoph Friderich Würtel, princely grenadier and master locksmith here, and (2) his wife Maria Catharina, née Bicklin. (3) Maria Catharina Nüchterin, wife of Wendel Scholl, the local citizen.
Written faintly in right column: to Hungary.
Note that the surname "Bicklin" is the feminine form of Bickel.

1816 View from the school building to the former bakery Werner. Chimney with stork's nest and Dohlgraben belong to the past.

Half-timbered house on the Juchhe, which stood in Dettenheim until 1816 and was rebuilt in Graben.

Maria Catharina  Nichter death 12 Nov 1825 film 102550955 page 561,
Ulrich Neitzel:Transcription:
[in the left margin] Schollin geb. Nüchterin, Wittwe
Died early on the tenth of November around one o'clock, and the twelfth of November. At ten o'clock in the morning Maria Katharina née Nüchterin, abandoned widow of the late Wendel Scholl, aged 68 J 8 M. The witnesses to the funeral are Jakob Encker Bürger and Alt__? and Georg Weber Bürger and Webermstr.
Dig the 12th November 1825 Henhöfer, Rev.
[in the left margin] Scholl, née Nüchter, widow
On November 10th early at 1 a.m. died and on November 12th at 10 a.m. was buried Maria Katharina née Nüchter, widow left behind of the late Wendel Scholl, age 68 years, 8 months. Witnesses of the burial are Jakob Encker, citizen and __? and Georg Weber, citizen and master weaver. Graben, 12 November 1825 Henhöfer, Pastor
Comment: Note that the maiden name of Maria Katharina is spelled here N ü chter(in), whereas in the birth record it is N i chter. The sound in German is quite close, so the spellings are used interchangeably.
Notes on Katharina’s death record: The pastor always introduces the sentence with: Jm (= Im = at the date) achten (tenth) Novemb. (November) ... starb (died) ...
More notes: The Pastor makes these funny circles that we call Schweineschwänzchen (little pigs tail) with the first word Im at the beginning of the sentence. Sometimes at the end of a word or sentence he adds the pig tails. It does not mean anything at the beginning, simply decoration.
Im (at the date) zehnten (tenth) of November starb (she died ) and she was buried in the grave yard: Begraben ? (enterred) 12, November 1825, Katharina Scholl, maiden name Nüchter, Witwe (widow).
The Graben Pastor who presided at this time was Aloys Henhofer.