Sunday, March 8, 2020

Johann Martin Köhler 1786-1845

Johann Köhler, was a citizen and farmer in Graben. He was born 1 August 1786 and died 14 September 1845.  He married 3 January 1811 Maria Elisabetha Heinle, born 26 November 1787 and died 17 February 1827. The widower subsequently remarried on 19 April 1827 Christine Scholl, born 22 April and died 1 October 1843. She was the daughter of Wendel Scholl, citizen in Graben and his wife Katharina Nücher. (source Baden Vol 2 by Brigitte Burkett, CGRS, Picton Press) 2 years 2 months and 7 days after the birth of her son Philipp, Christina married Graben farmer and widower Johann Martin Köhler. 

12 Feb 1825 Philipp Scholl born to Christina out of wedlock
15 Dec 1826 Philippine Köhler born to Maria and Martin Köhler
17 Feb 1827 Maria Elisabetha Heinle dies leaving a husband and 5 children
19 Apr 1827 Johann Martin Köhler marries Christina Scholl 2 months 2 days after the death of his wife

Christina's stepchildren at the time of her marriage:
Martin Jr. 11.5 years old
Maria Elisabetha 9 yr 3 mo
Leopold 7 yr 1 mo
Jakob 3 yr
Philippine 1 yr 4 days old.

What happened to the children from first marriage?
Johann Philipp Köhler b 15 July 1813; d 1885
Johann Martin Köhler b 28 Aug 1815; d 1870
Maria Elisabetha Köhler b 18 Jan 1818; d 1819 Dec infancy
Leopold Köhler b 2 Mar 1820; d 1896
Georg Friedrich Köhler b 13 Mar 1822; d 1898
Jakob Köhler b 3 April 1824; d 19 Feb 1832 Dec at 8
Philippine Köhler  b 15 Dec 1826 d 1827 Dec infancy

What happened to the children from the second marriage?
Wilhelm Köhler 1831-1831 Dec infancy
Christine Köhler 1833-1900 Married and emigrated to Nebraska, USA. Lived next door to her half brother Philipp Scholl
Wilhelm Köhler 1838 emigrated to the USA.

During their lives:
In pre-industrial times, the life and survival of people was closely linked to the land available to them. Without being able to use machines of any great value, almost all hands in the village were needed to cultivate the fields, supply the cattle and secure the most important other provisions for their own existence - for example, to provide for winter fires. On the whole, productivity was so low that no one could be relieved from the efforts of farming. Even the few village craftsmen, the schoolmaster and even the parish priest usually had to secure their livelihood by farming. The distribution of land according to area and quality was therefore not only the decisive principle for the social structure of the village community, but also for its overall ability to survive.  (Graben by Konrad Dussel)

Graben Forest
Furthermore, the size of the existing forest has a significance of which one can hardly imagine today. The forest was a supplier of an abundance of raw materials: The wood was used as building or heating material, fruit and leaves were brought in as fodder or stable litter or, conversely, the cattle were driven to pasture in the forest to provide only a few key foods. Incidentally, game is not mentioned here; hunting has always been a genuine master's game and was not allowed to be practiced by the villagers.  (Graben by Konrad Dussel)

Farming - 17th - 18th Centuries
In contrast to today, where every farmer can work his property as he wishes, farmers in earlier times were subject to fixed rules that the community laid down for each individual. The principle of three-field farming made coordinated work inevitable. On the one hand, the basis was a regular change of land use to prevent the total exploitation of the land: Each field was cultivated one year with winter crops (mainly rye and spelt or some wheat) and one year with summer crops (barley or oats). In the third year it lay fallow to recover and served at best as pasture for livestock. Artistic fertilizer was unknown and the manure of the few animals was hardly enough to improve the yield of the gardens. There were no significant changes here until the 18th century, which will be discussed later. An old custom, however, still existed for a long time: that the number of years of lease had to be divisible by three. In order to make this system work in practice, on the other hand, there was extensive land movement. This resulted from the fact that no roads were used at all, so that as much land as possible could be cultivated. Without paths, however, it was necessary to sow and harvest in a well coordinated manner, because this always meant entering land that belonged to others. So not every field was cultivated separately.  (Graben by Konrad Dussel)

Documents related to Johann Martin Köhler:
The Rolls Royce of Scholl documents:

Johann Martin Köhler b 1786 Familienbuch (Family Book) film 102118620 page 962
                   Person                  Born             Married          Died
Köhler Johann Martin L ú L    Aug1786                     14 Sep 1845
  Maria Elisabetha Heinle   26 May 1787  3 Jun 1811   3 Jun 1827
1. Johann Philipp                 15 July 1813                                1885
2. Martin                              28 Aug 1815                                1870
3. Maria Elisabetha              18 Jan 1818                     11 Dec 1819
4. Leopold Köhler                 2 Mar 1820                                 1896
5. Georg Friedrich Köhler   13 Mar 1822                    11 Nov 1898
6. Jakob Köhler                     3 Apr  1824                     19 Feb 1832
7. Philippine Köhler            15 Dec 1826                    13 Aug  1827
    II marriage
Christina Scholl                   22 Apr 1798 19Apr1827  11 Oct 1843
Philipp                                  12 Feb 1825 (Ammerika)
Children 2 marriage
8. Wilhelm Köhler                 23 Jul 1831                     27 Aug 1831
9.  Christine Köhler              13 Feb 1833                                  1900
10. Wilhelm Köhler              15 Sep 1838  (Ammerika)

Note: What could the letters "B. u. B." after Martin's means citizen and farmer
u. is probably und  = and
B. could stand for Bauer = Landwirt = farmer
The other B. could stand for Bürger  = Citizen 
(Peter Bertschinger)

Johann Martin Köhler marriage 19 Apr 1827 to Christina Scholl film 102078348 page 1094,
Johann Martin Köhler marriage 19 Apr 1827 8:00 am to Christina Scholl were married and legally blessed, the local citizen and widower Johann Martin Kohler whose first wife Maria Elisabetha Heinle died on the 17th of February 1827, born on August 1 1786 and with him Christina Scholl born 22 April 1798 the legitimate of the deceased Wendel Scholl common citizen and the deceased Maria Katharina born Nuchter witnesses Christoph Scholl Burger and Wendel Scholl citizen and master weaver. 
Pastor Aloys Henhöfer performed the marriage ceremony. 

Johann Martin Köhler death 14 Sep 1845 film 102118620 page 306Graben .  
Johann Martin Köhler death 14 Sep 1845 at 1:00 pm died and was buried on the 16th at 2:00 pm the local citizen and widower Philip Martin Kohler age 59 years 5 months 14 days, his first wife was Elisabeth Heinle and the second wife was Christina Scholl and the burial witnesses: Philipp Suss, Christoph Zimmerman both from here. 
Pastor A Köchlin's distinctive signature after entry