Friday, December 27, 2019

Ottenbach Land, Taxes and Government

Land Use

Common field and three-field use. When the Alemanni settled in our areas, they found a lot of forest and "pasture land. Around the small villages there were fenced orchards and vineyards, hemp and flaxed fields (house fields); the cereal fields were attached to it. even walls made of piled up stones without mortar (dry stone) had to keep the grazing cattle from planting. The forest and pasture area remained common property, commonwealth. What a valuable social facility for the then thinly sown population! Even the poor man who only had a hut and a tree garden on which he made hay for the Winter feeding of his only cow, was able to send it to the pasture during the summer months under the care of the community herder. In the Allmendwald (community service, justice, right) he fetched enough wood for the existence of his hut, the fencing of his site and the fire maintenance on the stove and in the stove. Such a day laborer or Tagnauer (Tauner), as the old writings call him, was a reasonably safe man. He was able to win the daily bread for himself and his family by working for the big farmer in the field, or at home with the tailor's needle or shoemaker's awl. And the common use of the Allmend tied the community members, rich and poor, closer to each other and somewhat compensated for the difference between them. Even the lesser man felt like a member of a whole, as a co-owner of the common good. Later leaves of our parish register will show that this common ground could also lead to disagreements. The stubble fields up to the autumn seeds also served as pasture for the cattle, as well as the grain fields in the third year in which they were left unused, that is, unbroken, un-ploughed. From the old Alemannic period up to the 18th century, today's peasant rule applied: manure is trickery! still extremely because of the pasture on the Allmend, the manure from the winter barn feeding was at most sufficient for the vegetable and tree garden and the hemp puncture; no waste was too good for the grain fields. But the fields never endured exploitation without reimbursement. Our grandfathers responded to this set of experiences by letting the field rest for the third year, keeping it broke. After all, these fallows (fields) offered a usable pasture. Such a change in arable farming meant, of course, that there had to be three ridges for each community, each of which had to be ordered in the same way. Dr. In this case, Strickler says: The fields were divided in: Winterzell with grain and wheat for the first year of use; then summer egg with oats, barley, beans etc. for the second year of use; the third, the Brach zelg, offered pasture for a year. - How this three-field economy changed to a certain extent in the course of time and then dissolved, may be hinted at later. If Toussen had an outside field against Wolsen, an inner field against Dachelsen and a back field against Bickwil, the four neighboring villages can still easily find remnants of their three-field use. How could this centuries-old social institution not have had to be a good bond in the community? 

The field names (goods name) from Wolsenand Bickwil have been put together. Many of them have a clear meaning in themselves, others have a less open meaning, and with third it can hardly be explained. The names indicate, for example: a) The shape and size: Rundacker, also Siwellacker, Siwellen, ("siuwell" is intended to mean "round" in Middle High German); Stilts (Spitzacker), six yurts (Juchart). b) The location: Bodenäcker, Kleinbühl, Breite, Breiten, Moos Äcker, Rebäcker, Giebel, Grundweid, Lochweid, Platten, Schürweid (at a barn), Hofmatt. Moos, Förch, Weid, Letten. d) A peculiarity: Kilchäcker (the church) and Frauentaler (obligatory to the monastery), tithing-free (lucky exception), Rossweid, Kalchweid (formerly with oneLime kiln). A number of these proper names can also be found under the hall names of many other places, country up, country down. Differentiating from "pasture according to the nature of its livestock, except for the aforementioned Rossweid, testify the special names foal (filling)" pasture. (Obfelden, Gedenkschrift zum 50-jährigen Bestand der Gemeinde, Oktober 1897)

1415 Taxes
A large part of the area between Lake Zurich and the Reuss, including Ottenbach, effectively became Zurcher Untertanenland (subject country). With the annexation of the county rights in 1415, Zurich's dominion was definitely secured. The construction of Knonau Castle had already begun in 1507/8, so that at that time the formation of the bailiwick (political district) of Knonau must have been certain. From then on, until the end of the 18th century, Ottenbach was part of the Zurcher (Zürich) bailiwick of Knonau. Inhabitants were subject to a bailiwick tax. 1628 the total Vogtsteuereinfte (tax) for Ottenbach amounted to 17 pounds 4 shillings 81⁄2 denarii, divided into 23 partial amounts. One Heinrich Sidler owed 9s. (Ottenbach's population In the course of time by Bernhard Schneider)

Population 1534
In 1634, 276 persons lived in Ottenbach in about 70 households. Only about a third to a quarter of them were therefore subject to bailiff's tax. (Ottenbach's population In the course of time by Bernhard Schneider)

1549 Interest
Interest was the biggest burden of alien taxes on the farmers of Ottenbach. In total, the fruit interest alone was about one and a half times as high as the tithes. On top of that came the interest on money. In contrast to tithes, which - apart from the few fields that were free of tithes - all farmers had to pay the same amount, the interest burden was unequally distributed.

As an example of debt interest, let us take the interest owed to the Zürcher Hospital: in 1549 Peter Gut von Ottenbach had to pay a debt interest of 7 pounds, which from then on was a burden on his inheritance. In return he received a capital of 140 pounds; the interest was the usual 5 percent for the whole of the early modern period. In 1542 Rudolf Gneser sold an interest of 12 pounds to the Bremgarten hospital to raise money. The interest was bought by the Zürcher Hospital in 1574. These two debt interests lasted for two centuries: on 26 April 1800 they were redeemed against repayment of the debt. (Ottenbach's population In the course of time by Bernhard Schneider)

1566 Wood
"If one looks at the stock of community goods, it becomes clear that the
Municipal property usually consisted mainly of land. The common woods were the main asset of many municipalities and therefore they were the centre of the municipal administration. As wood was used in many ways as a building material and fuel, as well as a raw material for handicraft products, the demand was very high. The use of wood was mostly common and has been subject to certain descriptions at least since the 15th century.

In 1566, the Zurcher council granted the coveted collection increase, combined with a wooden order. This included the following commandments and prohibitions:
1.) Whoever illegally fell an oak tree had to pay a 3 pound fine, who
a pine, fir, ash, beech or cherry tree fell, 1 1⁄2 pounds. The wood he had to either "liggen lassen" (litigate) or pay the civil community "according to billigkeyt" (pay even cheaply).
2.) Whoever fell a young oak, ash, hazel, cherry or other timber in a fenced young forest had to pay a fine of 1 pound and either "liggen lassen" the illegally felled wood or buy it from the civil community.
3.) Whoever needed wood for the construction of a fence had to report this to the four sworn village masters. These showed him which wood he was allowed to cut for it. Holly, hawthorn and blackthorn were called "zunholz" by name.
4.) For the construction of "all sorts of construction equipment", i.e. for carts, pushcarts, ploughs, harrows and other devices, every citizen of the community was allowed to cut wood for his own use, "where he finds it most convenient". But it was forbidden to sell any of it.
5.) The firewood was distributed by the village masters. Each burger received a share according to the size of his household.
6.) The village mayors were personally responsible for the observance of this order. Since half of all fines went to the authorities, the bailiff was responsible for them,  let them also be collected. A lenient village mayor had to expect a fine of 5 pounds.

Until the end of the early modern period, one could neither cook nor
The articles on the use of wood point to a social aspect in the use of the community property: Each household had its own demand for wood. A large farmer with his own house and such! A large farmer with his own house and a lot of land - a part of which he was allowed to fence in all year round - and one or more teams of oxen received a multiple of lassen (let) wood, which a day laborer without his own land, without animals and only with a house cart could claim. The owners of justice were therefore not all equal. Also in this respect the full farmers were privileged. Such advantages of the rich peasants over the rest of the village population weighed far less than the differences concerning private land ownership.

By the way, the composition of the forest is determined by the timber regulations. The oak was the most precious tree. Scots pine, silver fir, ash, beech and heat. Also for the field work one was dependent on wood. The building of houses is not mentioned in the wood regulations. Large quantities of wood were also needed for this. (Ottenbach's population In the course of time by Bernhard Schneider)

1836 Government
The task of the community was, besides half the salary of the watchman, the compensation of the road attendant and the maintenance of the road, the entire fire fighting. It had to purchase and maintain all fire extinguishing equipment and build the "fire stations and water thresholds" to be built.

The municipality was not obliged to grant anyone the right to move in. The term "foreigner rouch" (fireplace, stove) makes it clear that this article did not refer to those who moved out of their father's household individually - as servants, journeymen, soldiers or maids - in order to earn a living elsewhere until the death of their father. When there was room for them at home, they could return home and, ideally, inherit a just portion. This meant rather entire households with their own village justice, which settled elsewhere. Where the head of the family lived was the legal seat of the whole family, including those members who were elsewhere. In the population registers, these were always referred to as "absentees".

When a family sold their house and the justice of their "own benefit and good or similar causes", they lost their rights in Ottenbach. When she returned, she had to pay for her move in - like every accuser - and acquire house and justice again. Ausdriicklich was recorded that the sale of property to strangers was a burden to "a community Ottenbach farm".

 In 1836 16 voile and four half of the fees were listed. Then in 1836 a collection fee of 15 gulden was paid. The ordinary petty cash amounted to 4 shillings, which brought in 4 shillings of petty cash 20 gulden. The highest revenue item was 273 gulden and 30 shillings of an extraordinary tax. Altogether the civil community of Ottenbach collected a good 350 Guldens in 1835 and 1836.

The highest item of expenditure of the civil community was the contribution to the schoolmasters' salary of 68 gulden. The village guard received a total of 40 Guldens for 1835 and 1836, the farmhand 25 Guldens for 1836. 43 Guldens interest had to be paid and a loss carried forward of 74 Guldens had to be compensated. Finally, all expenses for the fire brigade were also the responsibility of the civil community.  (Ottenbach's population In the course of time by Bernhard Schneider)

1830 to 1848 Regeneration 
In one of the cantons, including Zurich, the Liberals succeeded in overthrowing the conservatives. The tendency to relax the relationship between church and state is thus challenged and the political framework for entrepreneurs is improved.

1830 Pastor Locher obtains the construction of the first poorhouse.
1833 Separation of the school communities Ottenbach, Wolsen and Lunnern from the church meinde Ottenbach.
I 835 Construction of the new schoolhouse next to the church.
The poorhouse is abolished, the poor are moved to Kappel.
1836 The Ottenbacher Muiler builds the Kanai to make better use of the water power.
1839 On July I, the district authorities move from Knonau to Affoltern.
In September, a conservative turnaround in Zürich ("Zuriputsch").
I 845 Liberal turnaround in Zi.irich.
1847 Separation of Obfelden and Ottenbach: the fiinf hamlets are merged to form the political municipality of Obfelden, the Miihle Rickenbach is annexed to Ottenbach.
1847-48 In the Sonderbund skrieg, the reformed liberal states defeat the catholic conservatives. (Obfelden, Gedenkschrift zum 50-jährigen Bestand der Gemeinde, Oktober 1897 )